This is an excerpt from Interprofessional Education and Collaboration by Jordan Utley,Cindy Mathena & Tina Gunaldo.
By Joy Doll, Anthony Breitbach, and Kathrin Eliot
Scanning the literature on IPE and IPCP quickly reveals that diversity and context dictate the methods of delivery, whether in the academic or clinical environment. IPE and IPCP are not delivered in a one-size-fits-all approach; rather, they challenge educators to consider the learning environment, learning outcomes, and delivery context. For example, in the case study at the beginning of the chapter, IPE was accomplished by faculty champions passionate about the approach, but a clear plan was not in place when institutional support for IPE expanded. However, examples of best practice exist at many academic and clinical institutions. Chapter 1 lends credibility to IPCP regarding benefits to systems, procedures, and health outcomes; however, there remains a gap in the research on how IPE should be implemented.10 Although the lack of a clear road map results in a challenging ambiguity, that same ambiguity offers extensive opportunity to innovate and engage in creative approaches to advance both IPE and IPCP.
As discussed by Masten and colleagues, the road map to IPE is more about implementing culture change than simply taking an educational approach.11 It requires leaders and educators to consider cultural context as a driver for the design and implementation of IPE, which has been presented as a best practice and a deliberate design approach.4Masten and colleagues describe these cultural changes following 5 stages (figure 2.2):
- Stage 1: Awakening—The process of recognizing the value and importance of IPE begins.
- Stage 2: Giving lip service—Leaders and educators move beyond talking about IPE to implementing structures to support it, like faculty time and reward.
- Stage 3: Parallel play—Pockets of IPE exist but are often not institutionalized.
- Stage 4: Group play—IPE curriculum advances, with administrators recognizing the challenges and faculty champions receiving support to move IPE forward.
- Stage 5: Cultural transformation—IPE is being implemented well and is recognized by the wider university.11
Figure 2.2 Stages of IPE development.
This approach provides a road map for the stages of cultural transformation necessary to make IPE a sustained reality (for more on sustainability, see chapter 8). Despite the lack of clear evidence for an ideal IPE curriculum, the literature on teamwork and team science provides extensive support to pedagogical approaches. The reality remains that attitudes, behaviors, and skills that elicit successful IPCP do not require a clear end point of accomplishment or competence; rather, they require educators to prepare students for an ambiguous and unclear journey.13 This chapter provides a foundation to prepare learners (e.g., students, residents, fellows, clinicians, faculty) to gain the attitudes, behaviors, and skills to negotiate the contemporary health care landscape that is keenly focused on population health and societal needs.