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Research Methods in Biomechanics-2nd Edition

Research Methods in Biomechanics-2nd Edition

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    Research Methods in Biomechanics, Second Edition, demonstrates the range of available research techniques and how to best apply this knowledge to ensure valid data collection. In the highly technical field of biomechanics, research methods are frequently upgraded as the speed and sophistication of software and hardware technologies increase. With this in mind, the second edition includes up-to-date research methods and presents new information detailing advanced analytical tools for investigating human movement.

    Expanded into 14 chapters and reorganized into four parts, the improved second edition features more than 100 new pieces of art and illustrations and new chapters introducing the latest techniques and up-and-coming areas of research. Also included is access to biomechanics research software designed by C-Motion, Visual3D Educational Edition, which allows users to explore the full range of modeling capabilities of the professional Visual3D software in sample data files as well as display visualizations for other data sets. Additional enhancements in this edition include the following:

    • Special features called From the Scientific Literature highlight the ways in which biomechanical research techniques have been used in both classic and cutting-edge studies.
    • An overview, summary, and list of suggested readings in each chapter guide students and researchers through the content and on to further study.
    • Sample problems appear in select chapters, and answers are provided at the end of the text.
    • Appendixes contain mathematical and technical references and additional examples.
    • A glossary provides a reference for terminology associated with human movement studies.

    Research Methods in Biomechanics, Second Edition, assists readers in developing a comprehensive understanding of methods for quantifying human movement. Parts I and II of the text examine planar and three-dimensional kinematics and kinetics in research, issues of body segment parameters and forces, and energy, work, and power as they relate to analysis of two- and three-dimensional inverse dynamics. Two of the chapters have been extensively revised to reflect current research practices in biomechanics, in particular the widespread use of Visual3D software. Calculations from these two chapters are now located online with the supplemental software resource, making it easier for readers to grasp the progression of steps in the analysis.
    In part III, readers can explore the use of musculoskeletal models in analyzing human movement. This part also discusses electromyography, computer simulation, muscle modeling, and musculoskeletal modeling; it presents new information on MRI and ultrasound use in calculating muscle parameters. Part IV offers a revised chapter on additional analytical procedures, including signal processing techniques. Also included is a new chapter on movement analysis and dynamical systems, which focuses on how to assess and measure coordination and stability in changing movement patterns and the role of movement variability in health and disease. In addition, readers will find discussion of statistical tools useful for identifying the essential characteristics of any human movement.

    The second edition of Research Methods in Biomechanics explains the mathematics and data collection systems behind both simple and sophisticated biomechanics. Integrating software and text, Research Methods in Biomechanics, Second Edition, assists both beginning and experienced researchers in developing their methods for analyzing and quantifying human movement.

    Table of Contents

    Introduction
    Biomechanics Analysis Techniques: A Primer
    Gary Kamen
    What Tools Are Needed in Biomechanics?
    Applications of the Principles of Biomechanics: An Example
    Numerical Accuracy and Significant Digits
    Summary

    Part I. Kinematics
    Chapter 1. Planar Kinematics
    D. Gordon E. Robertson and Graham E. Caldwell
    Description of Position
    Degrees of Freedom
    Kinematic Data Collection
    Linear Kinematics
    Angular Kinematics
    Summary
    Suggested Readings

    Chapter 2. Three-Dimensional Kinematics
    Joseph Hamill, W. Scott Selbie, and Thomas M. Kepple
    Collection of Three-Dimensional Data
    Coordinate Systems and Assumption of Rigid Segments
    Transformations between Coordinate Systems
    Defining the Segment LCS for the Lower Extremity
    Pose Estimation: Tracking the Segment LCS
    Joint Angles
    Joint Angular Velocity and Angular Acceleration of Cardan Joint Angles
    Summary
    Suggested Readings

    Part II. Kinetics
    Chapter 3. Body Segment Parameters
    D. Gordon E. Robertson
    Methods for Measuring and Estimating Body Segment Parameters
    Two-Dimensional (Planar) Computational Methods
    Three-Dimensional (Spatial) Computational Methods
    Summary
    Suggested Readings

    Chapter 4. Forces and Their Measurement
    Graham E. Caldwell, D. Gordon E. Robertson, and Saunders N. Whittlesey
    Force
    Newton’s Laws
    Free-Body Diagrams
    Types of Forces
    Moment of Force, or Torque
    Linear Impulse and Momentum
    Angular Impulse and Momentum
    Measurement of Force
    Summary
    Suggested Readings

    Chapter 5. Two-Dimensional Inverse Dynamics
    Saunders N. Whittlesey and D. Gordon E. Robertson
    Planar Motion Analysis
    Numerical Formulation
    Human Joint Kinetics
    Applications
    Summary
    Suggested Readings

    Chapter 6. Energy, Work, and Power
    D. Gordon E. Robertson
    Energy, Work, and the Laws of Thermodynamics
    Conservation of Mechanical Energy
    Ergometry: Direct Methods
    Ergometry: Indirect Methods
    Mechanical Efficiency
    Summary
    Suggested Readings

    Chapter 7. Three-Dimensional Kinetics
    W. Scott Selbie, Joseph Hamill, and Thomas Kepple
    Segments and Link Models
    3-D Inverse Dynamics Analysis
    Presentation of the Net Moment Data
    Joint Power
    Interpretation of Net Joint Moments
    Sources of Error in Three-Dimensional Calculations
    Summary
    Suggested Readings

    Part III. Muscles, Models, and Movement
    Chapter 8. Electromyographic Kinesiology
    Gary Kamen
    Physiological Origin of the Electromyographic Signal
    Recording and Acquiring the Electromyographic Signal
    Analyzing and Interpreting the Electromyographic Signal
    Applications for Electromyographic Techniques
    Summary
    Suggested Readings

    Chapter 9. Muscle Modeling
    Graham E. Caldwell
    The Hill Muscle Model
    Muscle-Specific Hill Models
    Beyond the Hill Model
    Summary
    Suggested Readings

    Chapter 10. Computer Simulation of Human Movement
    Saunders N. Whittlesey and Joseph Hamill
    Overview: Modeling As a Process
    Why Simulate Human Movement?
    General Procedure for Simulations
    Control Theory
    Limitations of Computer Models
    Summary
    Suggested Readings

    Chapter 11. Musculoskeletal Modeling
    Brian R. Umberger and Graham E. Caldwell
    Musculoskeletal Models
    Control Models
    Analysis Techniques
    Summary
    Suggested Readings

    Part IV. Further Analytical Procedures
    Chapter 12. Signal Processing
    Timothy R. Derrick and D. Gordon E. Robertson
    Characteristics of a Signal
    Fourier Transform
    Time-Dependent Fourier Transform
    Sampling Theorem
    Ensuring Circular Continuity
    Smoothing Data
    Summary
    Suggested Readings

    Chapter 13. Dynamical Systems Analysis of Coordination
    Richard E.A. van Emmerik, Ross H. Miller, and Joseph Hamill
    Movement Coordination
    Foundations for Coordination Analysis
    Quantifying Coordination: Relative Phase Methods
    Quantifying Coordination: Vector Coding
    Overview of Coordination Analysis Techniques
    Summary
    Suggested Readings


    Chapter 14. Analysis of Biomechanical Waveform Data
    Kevin J. Deluzio, Andrew J. Harrison, Norma Coffey, and Graham E. Caldwell
    Biomechanical Waveform Data
    Principal Component Analysis
    Functional Data Analysis
    Comparison of PCA and FDA
    Summary
    Suggested Readings

    Appendix A: International System of Units (System International, SI)
    Appendix B: Selected Factors for Converting Between Units of Measure
    Appendix C: Basic Electronics
    Appendix D: Vectors and Scalars
    Appendix E: Matrices and Matrix Operations
    Appendix F: Numerical Integration of Double Pendulum Equations
    Appendix G: Derivation of Double Pendulum Equations
    Appendix H: Discrete Fourier Transform Subroutine
    Appendix I: Shannon’s Reconstruction Subroutine
    Example Answers
    Glossary
    References
    Index
    About the Authors

    Ancillaries

    Visual3D Educational Edition from C-Motion
    This is a special version of the free Visual3D reader created specifically to accompany Research Methods in Biomechanics, Second Edition. This software can be used to display C3D and CMO data sets but also offers the ability to manipulate sample data sets to help readers understand kinetic and kinematic calculations and provides experience with professional biomechanical research software. In the sample data files, users can experiment with all of the modeling capabilities of the professional Visual3D software by manipulating the model definitions, signal definitions, and basic signal processing.

    The Visual3D Educational Edition and sample data files for this book can be downloaded at http://textbooks.c-motion.com. See the textbook for the password to use for downloading access.