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Human Body Composition-2nd Edition

Human Body Composition-2nd Edition

$143.95 CAD

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    The new edition of Human Body Composition is the most complete text in the burgeoning field of body composition research. The book covers the full range of methods to assess body composition, including dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, electrical impedance, and imaging techniques. Maintaining the focus of the first edition as a definitive research guide, this resource incorporates updated information on methods and topics of biological importance.

    This thoroughly revised reference includes new material on

    • molecular genetics;
    • energy expenditure;
    • body composition as related to various pathological states including cancer, inflammatory diseases, and illnesses associated with HIV; and
    • animal body composition.

    The information is presented in five logical parts along with an appendix for easy comprehension of the material. Part I presents an introduction to the field and sets the tone for the ensuing chapters. Part II provides an extensive review of the available body composition methods, including measurement cost, safety, and practicality. Part III features reviews on specific body composition components of widespread interest, adipose tissue and skeletal muscle, along with a review of body composition models. Part IV covers the biological influences on body composition such as age, ethnicity, and gender. Part V outlines pathological states related to body composition, including morbidity-mortality links.

    Human Body Composition, Second Edition, provides a comprehensive account of the science behind human body composition methods. Filled with reliable and accurate information, it is an essential tool and an indispensable reference for exercise science researchers, practitioners, and graduate students who are interested in body composition.

    Table of Contents

    Part I: The Science of Body Composition Research
    Chapter 1. Study of Body Composition: An Overview
    Wei Shen, Marie-Pierre St-Onge, ZiMian Wang, and Steven B. Heymsfield

    • Body Composition Rules and Models
    • Future Directions

    Part II: Body Composition Measurement Methods
    Chapter 2. Hydrodensitometry and Air Displacement Plethysmography
    Scott B. Going
    • Body Composition Models
    • Estimation of Body Volume by Underwater Weighing
    • Recommended Procedures for Hydrodensitometry
    • Air Displacement Plethysmography
    • Summary

    Chapter 3. Hydrometry
    Dale A. Schoeller
    • Total Body Water
    • Intracellular Water and Extracellular Water
    • Summary

    Chapter 4. Whole-Body Counting and Neutron Activation Analysis
    Kenneth J. Ellis
    • Whole-Body Counting
    • Neutron Activation Analysis

    Chapter 5. Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry
    Timothy G. Lohman and Zhao Chen
    • History and Development of DXA
    • Assumptions of DXA and Their Validity
    • Applicability of DXA
    • Equipment: Hardware
    • Equipment: Software
    • Measurement Procedures
    • Calibration Procedures
    • Precision of Total and Regional Composition Estimates
    • Accuracy of DXA for the Measurement of Fatness
    • Accuracy of DXA Regional Body Composition Assessments
    • Estimating Body Composition Changes
    • Hydration Status As a Confounder in DXA Body Composition Estimates
    • Application of DXA to Pediatric Populations
    • DXA Use in Multicomponent Models
    • Steps Toward Standardization of DXA
    • Recommended Procedure for DXA Measurements
    • Summary

    Chapter 6. Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis
    Wm. Cameron Chumlea and Shumei S. Sun
    • Physical Electrical Properties
    • Bioelectrical Properties
    • Measuring Impedance
    • Impedance History
    • Single- and Multiple-Frequency Impedance
    • Impedance and Body Composition
    • Changes in Body Composition
    • Segmental Bioelectrical Impedance
    • Impedance and Blood Chemistry
    • Summary

    Chapter 7. Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging
    Robert Ross and Ian Janssen
    • CT Image Acquisition
    • MRI Image Acquisition
    • CT Image Analysis
    • MRI Image Analysis
    • Determination of Tissue Volume
    • CT Measurement of Skeletal Muscle Tissue Quality
    • CT Measurement of Liver Tissue Quality
    • MRI Measurement of Skeletal Muscle Tissue Quality
    • MRI Measurement of Liver Tissue Quality
    • Validity of Tissue Quantity by CT
    • Validity of Tissue Quantity by MRI
    • Comparison of CT and MRI
    • Applications of CT and MRI on Tissue Quantity and Quality
    • Future Directions
    • Potential of CT and MRI in Large-Scale Studies
    • Summary

    Chapter 8. Anthropometry and Ultrasound
    Anna Bellisari and Alex F. Roche
    • Anthropometry
    • Ultrasound
    • Summary

    Chapter 9. Pediatric Body Composition Methods
    Aviva Sopher, Wei Shen, and Angelo Pietrobelli
    • Multicomponent Models
    • Hydrodensitometry
    • Air Displacement Plethysmography
    • Dilution Methods
    • Whole-Body Counting
    • Electrical Methods
    • Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry
    • Imaging Methods
    • Anthropometry
    • Summary

    Chapter 10. Animal Body Composition Methods
    Maria S. Johnson and Tim R. Nagy
    • Carcass Analysis
    • Total Body Electrical Conductivity (TOBEC)
    • Total Body Water by Isotope Dilution
    • Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA)
    • Computed Tomography (CT)
    • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS)
    • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
    • Summary

    Chapter 11. Statistical Methods
    Shumei S. Sun and Wm. Cameron Chumlea
    • Accuracy of Predictive Equations
    • Validity of the Response Variable
    • Precision of the Predictor Variables
    • Relationships Between Predictor Variables and Response Variables
    • Statistical Methods
    • Size and Nature of the Sample
    • Published Predictive Equations
    • Summary

    Part III: Body Composition Models and Components
    Chapter 12. Multicomponent Molecular-Level Models of Body Composition Analysis
    ZiMian Wang, Wei Shen, Robert T. Withers, and Steven B. Heymsfield
    • General Concepts of Molecular-Level Body Composition Methods
    • Three-, Four-, and Six-Component Hydrodensitometry Methods
    • Four- and Six-Component Neutron Activation Methods
    • Six-Component Total Body Carbon Method
    • Multicomponent Total Body Protein Method
    • Summary

    Chapter 13. Measuring Adiposity and Fat Distribution in Relation to Health
    Luís B. Sardinha and Pedro J. Teixeira
    • Total Body Fatness
    • Fat Distribution
    • Summary

    Chapter 14. Assessing Muscle Mass
    Henry C. Lukaski
    • Anthropometric Indicators of Muscle Mass
    • Muscle Metabolites
    • Radiographic Methods
    • Nuclear Techniques
    • Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis
    • High-Frequency Energy Absorption (HFEA)
    • Summary

    Chapter 15. Body Composition, Organ Mass, and Resting Energy Expenditure
    Dympna Gallagher and Marinos Elia
    • Measurement of REE
    • Quantifying Specific Organ and Tissue Masses
    • Specific Metabolic Rates of Organs and Tissues
    • Modeling REE
    • REE and Organ Metabolic Rates During the Life Span
    • REE: Race and Ethnicity
    • REE in Disease
    • Ongoing Efforts in the Measurement of Tissue-Specific Metabolic Rates
    • Summary

    Part IV: Body Composition and Biological Influences
    Chapter 16. Genetic Influences on Human Body Composition
    Peter Katzmarzyk and Claude Bouchard
    • Basic Concepts
    • Methods
    • Genetics and Body Fat Content
    • Genetics and Fat Topography
    • Genetic Pleiotropy and Body Fat Phenotypes
    • Genetics and Skeletal Muscle Phenotypes
    • Summary

    Chapter 17. Age
    Richard N. Baumgartner
    • Fat Mass
    • Fat Distribution
    • Fat-Free Mass
    • Summary

    Chapter 18. Variation in Body Composition Associated With Sex and Ethnicity
    Robert M. Malina
    • Reference Values
    • Total Body Composition
    • Adipose Tissue Distribution
    • Bone As a Component of Body Composition
    • Skeletal Muscle
    • Summary

    Chapter 19. Pregnancy
    Sally Ann Lederman
    • Why Measure Pregnancy Body Composition?
    • Measuring Body Composition Changes During Pregnancy
    • Advances of the Field

    Chapter 20. Exercise
    Daniel P. Williams, Pedro J. Teixeira, and Scott B. Going
    • Body Weight
    • Whole-Body Fat
    • Visceral Adipose Tissue
    • Fat-Free Mass, Lean Soft Tissue, and Skeletal Muscle
    • Bone
    • Summary

    Chapter 21. Hormonal Influences on Human Body Composition
    Marie-Pierre St-Onge and Per Bjorntorp
    • Hormonal Effects Through the Life Cycle
    • Effects of Glucocorticoids
    • Interactions Between Hormones
    • Effects of Adipocyte-Derived Hormones
    • Regulation of Energy Exchange
    • Summary

    Part V: Body Composition and Pathological States
    Chapter 22. Morbidity and Mortality Associations
    Jacob C. Seidell
    • Anthropometric Measures in Relation to Morbidity and Mortality: Methodological Issues
    • Anthropometry, Body Composition, and Mortality
    • Body Composition and Aging: Implications for Morbidity and Mortality
    • Effect of Age on the Association Between Weight Change and Health
    • Effect of Age on the Association Between Fat Distribution and Health
    • Summary

    Chapter 23. Body Composition and Cancer
    Zhao Chen
    • Body Composition and Cancer Risk
    • Body Composition and Cancer Treatment
    • Cancer-Related Wasting
    • Other Applications of Body Composition Assessments in Cancer Research
    • Summary

    Chapter 24. Obesity and Diabetes: Body Composition Determinants of Insulin Resistance
    Bret H. Goodpaster and David E. Kelley
    • Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and IR in Type 2 DM and Obesity
    • Fat-Free Mass and IR in Type 2 DM and Obesity
    • Abdominal Adiposity: Visceral and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue in Type 2 DM
    • Lower-Extremity Adipose Tissue
    • Skeletal Muscle Fat Content
    • Hepatic Steatosis and IR in Obesity and Type 2 DM
    • Effects of Weight Loss on Body Composition and IR
    • Summary

    Chapter 25. Body Composition Studies in People With HIV
    Donald P. Kotler and Ellen S. Engelson
    • Early Studies (1981-1983)
    • Body Composition Assessment
    • Cross-Sectional Studies
    • Studies of Pathogenic Mechanisms
    • Nutritional Status and Clinical Outcomes
    • Longitudinal Studies
    • Studies of Nutritional Therapies
    • HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy
    • Pseudotruncal Obesity
    • Treatment of Fat Redistribution
    • Switch Studies
    • Summary

    Chapter 26. Inflammatory Diseases and Body Composition
    Ian Janssen and Ronenn Roubenoff
    • Influence of Metabolic Imbalances on Body Composition
    • Influence of Immune Mediators on Metabolism
    • Usefulness of Body Composition As a Measure of Chronic Disease Status
    • Inflammatory Diseases and Body Composition in Adults
    • Inflammatory Diseases and Body Composition in Children and Adolescents
    • Summary

    Appendix: Reference Body Composition Tables