Hard Work:Defining Physical Work Performance Requirements
Hard Work: Defining Physical Work Performance Requirements focuses on physically demanding occupations that require strength and stamina, such as law enforcement, structural and wildland firefighting, mining, forestry, and the military. It is the first book to examine the relationship of recruitment practices, physical training, and physical evaluation to the intricate environment of corporations, labor organizations, the legal system, and employment rights.
Hard Work assists readers in making intelligent and informed decisions resulting in a safer, healthier, and more productive work force. Authors Brian Sharkey and Paul Davis have spent more than 70 years combined researching worker performance in physically demanding professions. Hard Work brings their perspective as exercise scientists to an examination of these factors:
-Work requirements and capacity for physically demanding jobs
-Physical characteristics of the “athlete-worker,” including aerobic and muscular fitness
-Test development, validation, and utilization in employee selection
-Employee health and job-related fitness
-Environmental factors affecting employee performance, such as heat, cold, and altitude
-Respiratory protection and lifting guidelines
-Legal aspects of employment, consequences of legal decisions, and a proposed alternative to litigation
By using case studies and real-life examples of tests and programs, the authors teach readers how to evaluate recruits and maintain employee health and safety. The book also includes nine appendixes offering valuable perspectives on testing, job-related fitness, policies, procedures, and performance assessment.
Hard Work: Defining Physical Work Performance Requirements is organized into five parts. Part I begins with definitions of the physically demanding occupation and characteristics of workers available for employment. The legal aspects of employment are also considered, including reference to age, gender, race, and disability.
Part II examines the value of initial and periodic evaluations, the test development process, and issues related to testing. Additionally, part II contains an examination of the effects of court decisions and labor unions on the evaluation processes of both new and incumbent employees.
Part III discusses implementation of recruit testing designed to determine those individuals who can and cannot perform the job. The inherent challenges in shifting from recruit testing to periodic tests for incumbents are described, and ways to evaluate the costs and benefits of testing and training programs are examined.
In part IV, the values and limits of medical examinations and employee wellness programs are considered. Part IV also discusses work physiology and its relationship to performance and presents the job-related physical fitness program as the essential element required for preserving career-long performance and health.
Part V discusses employee performance in extreme environments, respiratory protection devices and their impact on the worker, and guidelines designed to reduce the risk of back injuries. It concludes with an examination of legal issues and a proposed alternative to litigation using a collective approach that avoids confrontation and biased testimony and saves taxpayer money.
Hard Work: Defining Physical Work Performance Requirements suggests how workers could benefit by working up to job requirements while maintaining their health, safety, and job performance. This unique text seeks to bring about a paradigm shift wherein workers are viewed as occupational athletes who, aided by effective recruitment, testing, and training, receive the necessary support to help them excel in their physically demanding workplace.
A reference for occupational physiologists, graduate students, physicians in occupational medicine, managers and employees in physically demanding occupations, city and agency personnel specialists, judges, lawyers, expert witnesses, personnel in state and federal labor and justice departments, and those who write and interpret employment laws.
Table of Contents
Part I: The Job and the Worker
Chapter 1: Physically Demanding Occupations
Chapter 2: The Worker
Physical Characteristics of Workers
Chapter 3: Employment Opportunity
Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures
Part II: Test Development and Validation
Chapter 4: Job-Related Tests
Testing and Legal Issues
Chapter 5: Test Validation
Reliability and Cross-Validation
Bona Fide Occupational Qualification
Suboptimal Selection Procedures
Chapter 6: Test Implementation
Seeking Professional Assistance
Part III: Employee Selection Practices
Chapter 7: Testing New Employees
Chapter 8: Testing Incumbent Employees
Age and Performance
Providing Adequate Notice
Medical and Safety
Chapter 9: Program Evaluation
Analysis: Quantitative and Qualitative Information
Part IV: Employee Health, Physiology, and Performance
Chapter 10: Employee Health
Developing Medical Standards
Employee Health Programs
Costs and Benefits of Employee Health Programs
Chapter 11: Physiology of Work
Oxygen and Energy
Supply and Support Systems
The Training Effect
Chapter 12: Job-Related Fitness
The Job-Related Fitness Programs
Periodizing the Training Plan
Risks and Benefits
Part V: Job-Related Issues
Chapter 13: Environmental Impacts
Heat Stress and Heat Disorders
Preventing Heat Disorders
Chapter 14: Respiratory Protection
APRs and Women
Chapter 15: Lifting Guidelines
NIOSH Lifting Equation
Selection and Training
Chapter 16: Legal Issues
Alternative to Litigation
“In Hard Work: Defining Physical Work Performance Requirements, Drs. Brian J. Sharkey and Paul O. Davis have now provided an excellent scientific examination of the role of physically intense work on the worker who performs arduous and often dangerous occupations. How to test prospective employees and incumbents as well as legal issues are dealt with in a very professional and valid manner. This text is useful for supervisors and workers who wish to understand hard work in the physically demanding performance professions.”
Dr. Al Morris, FACSM, Director of Health Improvement and Physical Fitness Programs for the United States Border Patrol