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Essentials of Electromyography PDF

Essentials of Electromyography PDF

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    The interest in and use of electromyography (EMG) have grown significantly in recent years. Researchers have found numerous clinical and research uses for EMG, including biofeedback, gait analysis, and clinical diagnosis for neuromuscular disorders. Yet, until now, few sources have been available to help novices understand the characteristics of the instrumentation, signal analysis techniques, and appropriate EMG applications.

     

    Essentials of Electromyographyprovides the perfect starting point for those who plan to use EMG because it aids in the comprehension of issues such as handling noise contamination to the area, slope, and variability of the EMG signal. The text is also a solid reference for practitioners who use EMG, including exercise scientists, physical therapists, occupational therapists, and motor development specialists.

     

    The book contains six detailed chapters discussing the anatomy and physiology of muscle, bioelectricity, EMG tools, signal processing, force–fatigue relations, and gait. Through Essentials of Electromyography, readers will

    • learn both fundamental and advanced concepts regarding the principles of using EMG, including the use and abuse of electrical recordings of muscle potentials;

    • discover the physiological basis of EMG signals, which is explained at an introductory level; and

    • explore relevant topics such as electrode configuration, advanced signal processing theory, and locations for extracting EMG information.

     

    The text provides a solid review of the relationship between human anatomy and EMG as well as how EMG is applied to clinical areas. It showcases over 160 figures and many qualitative explanations to communicate the principles of EMG, the biophysical basis of EMG, and the appropriate applications of EMG. It also contains appendixes for readers with a deeper understanding of EMG and stronger backgrounds in math; those readers will have the opportunity to work through more detailed EMG calculations. The book is heavily referenced and illustrated with diagrams showing electrical circuits and the progression of electrical impulses.

     

    Essentials of Electromyography—which is also available as an e-book—will help readers learn how to apply EMG for biofeedback, back pain, sport activities, and other uses. The text pulls together information scattered in books and articles among the numerous disciplines that use EMG as a tool. With its clear presentation of the concepts and applications of EMG, Essentials of Electromyography will prove to be a valuable text for practitioners and students alike.

     

    Table of Contents

    Preface

    Acknowledgments

    Acronyms and Symbols

     

    Chapter 1. Anatomy and Physiology of Muscle Bioelectric Signals

    Anatomical Features of Muscle

    Physiology of the Muscle Fiber

                Resting Membrane Potentials

                Generation of the Muscle Fiber Action Potential

                Muscle Fiber Conduction Velocity

    Motor Unit Features

                Fiber Organization

                Motor Unit Action Potential

    Techniques for Modulating Muscular Force

    Other Physiological Influences on the Electromyogram

    For Further Reading

     

    Chapter 2. Bioelectricity

    Forces in Electricity

                Electric Charge

                Electric Fields

                Electric Potential Energy

                Volume-Conducted Potentials

                            The Far Observation Line

                            The Near Observation Line

                            Tripole Representation of the Muscle Fiber Action Potential

    Essentials of Electric Circuits

                Capacitance

                Electric Current

                Resistance

                Electrical Energy

                Resistors and Capacitors in a Circuit

                            Charging a Capacitor Through a Resistor

                            Discharging a Capacitor Through a Resistor

                            The Muscle Fiber as a Resistor-Capacitor Circuit

    Essentials of Alternating Current

                Conventions of an Alternating Signal

                Effective Voltage and Current

                Capacitance in an AC Circuit

                Impedance

                Cutoff Frequency for an Alternating Current Circuit

    For Further Reading

     

    Chapter 3. EMG Instrumentation

    Electrodes

                The Electrode-Electrolyte Interface

                Half-Cell Potential

                Electrode Types

                            Surface Electrodes

                            Indwelling Electrodes

                                        Needle Electrodes

                                        Wire Electrodes

                Tissue Filtering

    Electrode Configuration

                Monopolar Recordings

                Bipolar Recordings

                            Interelectrode Distance

                            Selectivity

                Considerations for Electrode Placement

    Amplifier Characteristics

                Differential Gain

                Input Impedance

                            Bias Current

                            Amplifier Noise

                            Cabling

                Frequency Response

                            Bode Plots

                            Decibels

                            Filters

                                        High-Pass Filter

                                        Low-Pass Filter

                                        Band-Pass Filter

                            Practical Applications

                            Electrode Arrays

    Grounding

                Safety Grounding

                Signal Grounding

    Computer Interfacing

                Sampling

                Horizontal Resolution

                Multiplexing

                Quantization

                Vertical Resolution

    For Further Reading

     

    Chapter 4. EMG Signal Processing

    Amplitude

                Nature of the EMG signal

                Linear Envelope Detection

                            Radio Signal Demodulation

                            Moving Average

                            EMG Signal Demodulation

                Linear Envelope EMG Measurement

                            Area

                            Slope

                            Onset

                            Shape

                Band-Passed EMG Measurement

    Cross-Correlation Function

                Background of the Correlation

                Calculation of Cross-Correlation Function

                Muscle Fiber Conduction Velocity

                Electromechanical Delay

                Cross-Talk

    Frequency

                Fourier Series

                Frequency Spectrum

                Power Spectrum

                Fourier Transform

                Frequency Spectrum of EMG

                Power Spectral Density of EMG

                Discrete Measures Obtained From the Power Spectral Density Function

    Data Window Length

    Noise Contamination

                Signal-to-Noise Ratio

                Inherent Noise

                            Electrode Noise

                            Amplifier Noise Sources

                Interference Noise

                Signal Averaging

                Baseline Noise Spectrum Subtraction

                ECG Contamination

    Basic Concepts of Digital Filtering

                Residuals Analysis

                Digital Filtering

    For Further Reading

     

    Chapter 5. EMG–Force and EMG–Fatigue Relationships

    Relationships Between Muscular Force and EMG

                EMG Magnitude and Muscular Force

                            Studies Using Isometric Contractions

                            Studies Using Nonisometric Contractions

                            Studies Focusing on Other Factors

                Frequency Analyses

    EMG Analysis During Fatiguing Contractions

                EMG Amplitude During Fatigue

                Spectral Frequency Characteristics

    Advanced EMG Issues During Fatiguing Contractions

                M-Waves During Fatigue

                The Importance of Muscle Length

                Shifts In Spectral Frequency During Fatigue

                Other EMG–Fatigue Reporting Techniques

                Reliability of EMG Measures During Fatiguing Contractions

                Other Issues and Recommendations

    For Further Reading

     

    Chapter 6. Other EMG Applications

    EMG and Gait

                Indwelling or Surface Electrodes?

                Normalization

                Appropriate Quantitative Measures

                EMG Onset–Offset Analysis

                Visual Presentation of EMG Data During Gait

                Other Gait EMG Issues

                Reliability of the EMG Signal During Gait

    EMG Activation Timing

                Threshold Detection

                More Complex Techniques

    Evoked Potentials

                M-Waves

                H-Reflexes

                V-Waves

                F-Waves

                Peripheral Nerve Conduction Velocity

                Other Evoked Potentials

    Ballistic Movements

    For Further Reading

     

    Appendix 2.1 Calculation of Electric Fields

    Appendix 2.2 Calculating the Electric Potential at a Point

    Appendix 2.3 Electric Circuits

    Appendix 2.4 Charging a Capacitor Through a Resistor

    Appendix 2.5 The Muscle Fiber as an RC Circuit

    Appendix 3.1 Muscle–Tendon End Effects

    Appendix 4.1 EMG Area and Slope Measurement

    Appendix 4.2Cross-Correlation Function

    Appendix 4.3 Calculating Fourier Coefficients

     

    Glossary

    References

    Author Index

    Subject Index

    About the Authors

    About the Author

    Gary Kamen, PhD, is a professor in the department of kinesiology at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst. He has 30 years of experience in the field of kinesiology, including research in basic electromyography, neuromuscular physiology, motor control, exercise neuroscience, motor unit physiology, and numerous electromyographic applications. Through research studies, he has demonstrated the importance of motor unit firing rate for maximal force production in older adults, thus proving the importance of neural activation for muscular strength.  

    Kamen has published over 75 articles in the field of electromyography, motor unit recording techniques, motor control, and other concepts related to this book. He also published one of the first texts in exercise science. He is a fellow of both the AmericanCollege of Sports Medicine and the American Association for Kinesiology and Physical Education, as well as a member of several organizations, including the Society for Neuroscience, the International Society for Electrophysiology and Kinesiology, and the International Society of Biomechanics.

    David A. Gabriel, PhD, is a professor in the department of physical education and kinesiology at BrockUniversity in St. Catharines, Ontario. He has 20 years of experience conducting research related to kinesiology, rehabilitation, and clinical neurophysiology. This includes surface and indwelling electromyographic techniques as well as computer modeling and simulation of the EMG signal. From this research he has been able to solve difficult problems in EMG data collection, reduction, analysis, and interpretation.

    Gabriel published a series of papers on a novel signal processing method for documenting subtle changes in the surface EMG signal and how those changes can be related to motor unit firing patterns. He is also widely published in other areas, including reliability of the surface EMG signal for both kinesiological and clinical studies and modeling and simulation of the surface of the EMG signal.

    Gabriel is associate editor for the Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, an editorial board member for the Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, vice president and president-elect of the International Society for Electrophysiology and Kinesiology, a fellow of the AmericanCollege of Sports Medicine, and a member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.

    Ancillaries

    All ancillaries are FREE to course adopters and can be found at www.HumanKinetics.com/EssentialsofElectromyography.

    Image bank. Features most of the figures and tables from the text, sorted by chapter. The images can be used in developing a customized presentation based on specific course requirements. A blank PowerPoint template is also provided, along with easy-to-follow instructions for quickly creating a presentation.

    The image bank is also available for purchase • ISBN 978-0-7360-7746-0