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Career Development in Recreation, Parks, and Tourism

Career Development in Recreation, Parks, and Tourism

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    Career Development in Recreation, Parks, and Tourism: A Positioning Approach outlines a step-by-step plan for career development based on the technique of positioning. In contrast to traditional job search methods, the positioning approach shows you how to increase your chances of securing your preferred job by placing yourself close to the person with whom you want to work, the place or organization where you want to work, or the position that fulfills your career goals. Using the positioning approach, author Robert B. Kauffman has guided students through internship into the profession and beyond.

    Based on contemporary research and literature, Career Development in Recreation, Parks, and Tourism: A Positioning Approach prepares students for the next step in their preprofessional and professional careers. This resource offers expert advice and tested techniques to help students do the following:

    • Decide on the job they want and begin to proactively seek out opportunities in that area.
    • Determine the knowledge, skills, abilities, and experiences (KSAEs) required to get the job they want and start developing those KSAEs.
    • Use professional networking to meet people in the field and advance their career goals.
    • Gather information on the field, the organizations they want to work for, and the positions they’re interested in so they can better show where they fit in the organizations and why they should be hired.
    • Engage in one-on-one interviews with the people in charge of hiring at the target organizations.
    • Prepare for interviews and develop the tools they’ll need during the job search, including resumes, cover letters, portfolios, and business cards.

    The book includes individual and group exercises to help students better understand each step in the positioning approach, as well as sample resumes, letters, and e-mails. It also features stories from students and professionals who describe how they used the positioning approach to reach their career goals. Throughout the text, the author provides examples, tools, and tips from his years of experience helping students use the positioning strategy. He also offers techniques for succeeding in more traditional job searches, including preparing for the formal job interview.

    Jump-start your current career or learn how your coursework and field experiences can open doors to your career goals. Whether you’re just beginning a course of study or just entering the profession, Career Development in Recreation, Parks, and Tourism: A Positioning Approach will help you develop the skills and tools to get the job you want.


    Audiences:Supplemental textbook for recreation, parks, and tourism students to position their undergraduate coursework, practicums, field experiences, and internships to align with their future career path; reference for professionals considering their next career step.

    Table of Contents

    Chapter 1 The New Paradigm
    Discovering the Positioning Model

    • Positioning and the Seven-Step Sales Model
    • Positioning in Recreation, Parks, and Tourism
    • Nine Steps to Positioning Yourself
    • Case Study: Sally Herr
    • Paradigm Shift
    • Putting It All Together
    • References
    • Exercise 1.1: Comparing Your Resume With Sally Herr’s
    • Exercise 1.2: Surveying Your Hidden Jobs
    • Exercise 1.3: Determining Your Hidden Jobs

    Chapter 2 Proximity Is Everything . . . Well, Almost Everything
    Where do I want to work?

    • Seeking Proximity in Your Job Search
    • Determining Your Career Goal or Where You Want to Work
    • Putting It All Together
    • Exercise 2.1: Analyzing Sally Herr’s Career Path
    • Exercise 2.2: The Blank Resume
    • Exercise 2.3: Which Student Example Is Closest to Your Story?
    • Exercise 2.4: The Five Ws and Developing Your Career Goal
    • Exercise 2.5: Finding a Job Announcement on the Internet
    • Exercise 2.6: My Favorite Job
    • Exercise 2.7: My Least Favorite Job
    • Exercise 2.8: Analyzing Your Resume
    • Exercise 2.9: The Blank Resume—Part II

    Chapter 3 Being Proactive, not Reactive
    Do I actively seek the job I want, or do I wait for it to come to me?

    • Benefits of a Proactive Attitude
    • Assessing How Proactive You Are
    • Proactive Career Development Traits
    • Putting It All Together
    • References
    • Exercise 3.1: Proactive Career Development Instrument
    • Exercise 3.2: Proactive Job Search
    • Exercise 3.3: Proactive Job Search Skills

    Chapter 4 Think Evaluation
    Why should they hire me?

    • Starting With the Evaluation Instrument
    • Determining Your KSAEs From Job Announcements
    • Think Evaluation as Part of the Traditional Job Search Process
    • Putting It All Together
    • Exercise 4.1: Evaluating Sally Herr’s Resume
    • Exercise 4.2: The Hiring Unit
    • Exercise 4.3: Determining Your KSAEs

    Chapter 5 Bridging
    Am I prepared for the job I seek?

    • Understanding Bridging
    • Academic Preparation
    • Professional Development
    • Continuing Education
    • Volunteer Activities
    • Acquiring Your KSAEs
    • Putting It All Together
    • Exercise 5.1: Your Plan to Obtain the KSAEs You Need
    • xercise 5.2: The Blank Resume
    • Exercise 5.3: A Comparative Analysis of Your KSAEs
    • Exercise 5.4: Now that You Know What to Do, What Should You Do?

    Chapter 6 Professional Networking
    How do I meet the person who will hire me?

    • Professional Networking
    • Avoiding Black Holes
    • Developing Your Professional Family
    • Professional Mentoring
    • Putting It All Together
    • References
    • Exercise 6.1: Identifying People
    • Exercise 6.2: Working the Room
    • Exercise 6.3: Networking Costs and Benefits
    • Exercise 6.4: Living Legends

    Chapter 7 Casing the Joint
    Do I know everything about the organization and the job I seek?

    • Places to Look
    • Casing the Field
    • Casing the Organization
    • Researching the Position
    • Casing the People
    • Positioning Yourself
    • Putting It All Together
    • Exercise 7.1: Casing the Joint Worksheet
    • Exercise 7.2: Introductory E-Mail

    Chapter 8 The One-on-One Interview
    Who within the organization can hire me?

    • The Seven-Step Sales Model and Positioning
    • The Seven-Step Model and the One-on-One Interview
    • The Individual Job Announcement
    • Dressing for Success
    • Seating Arrangements
    • Starting the Conversation
    • Putting It All Together
    • Exercise 8.1: Seating Arrangements
    • Exercise 8.2: The Good Listener
    • Exercise 8.3: Perfecting Your Greeting and Introduction
    • Exercise 8.4: Writing Your Individualized Job Announcement

    Chapter 9 The Formal Interview
    How should I prepare for a traditional interview?

    • Strategies
    • Typical Questions
    • Questions for Recent Graduates
    • Transition Questions
    • Gotcha Questions
    • Three-Doors Questions
    • Inappropriate or Illegal Questions
    • Phone Interviews
    • Following Up
    • Putting It All Together
    • Exercise 9.1: Mock Interview
    • Exercise 9.2: Mock Phone Interview
    • Exercise 9.3: Talking to Your Talking Points

    Chapter 10 You and Your Resume
    Does my resume reflect who I am?

    • Design Principles
    • Reverse Chronological and Functional Approaches
    • Parts of Your Resume
    • Your Resume as an Art Form
    • Putting It All Together
    • References
    • Exercise 10.1: Individual Resume Assessment
    • Exercise 10.2: Group Resume Assessment

    Chapter 11 Portfolios and Business Cards
    Do I have the job search tools I need to obtain the job I seek?

    • Types of Portfolios
    • Layout Considerations
    • Parts of Your Portfolio
    • Business Cards
    • Putting It All Together
    • Exercise 11.1: Business Cards

    Chapter 12 Cover Letters and E-Mails
    Do I have the job search tools I need to obtain the job I seek?

    • Cover Letters
    • E-Mail and Other Electronic Communications
    • Putting It All Together
    • References
    • Exercise 12.1: Writing a Cover Letter

    Chapter 13 Putting It All Together
    Exercise 13.1: Applying the Positioning Model

    About the Author

    Robert B. Kauffman, PhD, is a professor in the recreation and parks management department at Frostburg State University in Frostburg, Maryland, where his work with students as internship supervisor led to the development of his theory of job search positioning.

    As a researcher, Kauffman has focused on the study of resume construction and the evaluation criteria of employers reviewing resumes of job candidates. Kauffman also was the editor of Employ, a former publication of the National Recreation and Parks Association, which provided tips and tools for the job search and career opportunities in the recreation and parks field.

    In April 2005, he received the Citation Award from Maryland Recreation and Parks Association, the highest award presented to individuals who have made a significant contribution to recreation and parks movement in Maryland. Kauffman was awarded two Golden Quill Awards in 1990 and in 1989 from the American Camping Association for literary contribution to the camping field. In 1989, Kauffman received the Golden Eagle Award from the Council for International Non-theatrical Events (CINE) for his film Cold, Wet, and Alive. He received this award a second time in 1994 for his film Heads Up.

    Kauffman designed and built the home where he and his wife, Sally, reside in Frostburg. In his free time, he enjoys home construction projects, whitewater canoeing, rafting, and wilderness canoeing and camping.