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Physiology of Sport and Exercise 6th Edition With Web Study Guide

Physiology of Sport and Exercise 6th Edition With Web Study Guide

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    Physiology of Sport and Exercise, Sixth Edition With Web Study Guide, frames research findings in physiology in a reader-friendly format, making this textbook a favorite of instructors and students alike. This resource offers a simple way for students to develop an understanding of the body’s abilities to perform various types and intensities of exercise and sport, to adapt to stressful situations, and to improve its physiological capacities.

    Written by a team of distinguished researchers, all past presidents of the American College of Sports Medicine, this updated sixth edition has been enhanced with new elements to facilitate learning comprehension. The redesigned photos, illustrations, and medical artwork of the fifth edition that clarified difficult concepts and illustrated how the body performs are now complemented by new digital components. Seven animations have been added, bringing the total to 25 and providing a dynamic way to experience course material. The 60 audio clips provide explanations of complex physiological processes to aid students’ understanding of important illustrations in the text, and approximately 20 video clips from leaders in the field discuss recent developments and real-world applications to help students connect theoretical and practical concepts. Corresponding icons throughout the text notify students when digital elements are available to complement the materials.

    In addition to the improved digital components, Physiology of Sport and Exercise, Sixth Edition, features new and updated content based on the latest research in the field:

    • Updated information on high-intensity interval training (HIIT), interactions between resistance training and diet, and the relationship between protein intake and muscle synthesis

    • A reorganized chapter on ergogenic aids and a clearer organization of prohibited versus legal substances

    • Extensively revised chapters on physical activity and disease, including updated treatment guidelines and understandings of metabolism and disease processes

    • New information on the health effects of prolonged sitting as well as osteoporosis, bone health, and effects of exercise during menopause

    • A series of 76 Research Perspectives emphasizing new and emerging findings in the field

    Ease of reading has been the cornerstone of this popular text. The sixth edition of Physiology of Sport and Exercise continues to offer comprehensive coverage of the complex relationship between human physiology and exercise while maintaining an engaging and student-friendly tone. Unique learning features allow students to build their knowledge as they discover the depth and breadth of this fascinating field of study. The book’s accessible layout, including chapter-opening outlines and review boxes throughout each chapter, will help students focus on the major concepts addressed. Study questions and a list of key terms at the end of the chapter increase students’ opportunities for recall and self-testing. A comprehensive glossary and lists of common abbreviations and conversions provide easy reference for students as they complete labs and assignments.

    To expand the material and provide an enriched learning experience, both students and instructors can take advantage of the web-based ancillaries that accompany the text. In addition to new animations, videoos, and audio clips, the web study guide includes comprehension quizzes to provide immediate feedback to students on their knowledge retention as well as end-of-unit mastery checks that students can use for evaluating their progress.

    Instructors are provided with access to an instructor guide, test package, ready-to-use chapter quizzes, and a presentation package plus image bank. The presentation package includes PowerPoint slides with key points and content, which can be modified to suit a variety of class structures. An image bank features all of the graphics, artwork, and content photos from the text for easy insertion into tests, quizzes, handouts, and other course materials. Digital extras—composed of the animations, videos, and audio clips that students find in the web study guide—bolster comprehension of challenging concepts.

    Physiology of Sport and Exercise has been a cornerstone textbook of the engaging field of exercise physiology. Through dynamic and interactive learning activities, easy-to-follow layouts, and research-oriented content, students and instructors will find this an invaluable resource for their continued education.


    Textbook for undergraduate courses in exercise physiology. A reference for graduate students in exercise science, exercise scientists, sports medicine specialists, physicians, athletic trainers, kinesiotherapists, physical therapists, physical educators, and fitness specialists.

    Table of Contents

    Introduction: An Introduction to Exercise and Sport Physiology

    Focus of Exercise and Sport Physiology

    Acute and Chronic Responses to Exercise

    The Evolution of Exercise Physiology

    Research: The Foundation for Understanding

    Part I. Exercising Muscle

    Chapter 1. Structure and Function of Exercising Muscle

    Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle

    Muscle Fiber Contraction

    Muscle Fiber Types

    Skeletal Muscle and Exercise

    Chapter 2. Fuel for Exercise: Bioenergetics and Muscle Metabolism

    Energy Substrates

    Controlling the Rate of Energy Production

    Storing Energy: High-Energy Phosphates

    The Basic Energy Systems

    Interaction Among the Energy Systems

    The Oxidative Capacity of Muscle

    Chapter 3. Neural Control of Exercising Muscle

    Structure and Function of the Nervous System

    Central Nervous System

    Peripheral Nervous System

    Sensory-Motor Integration

    Chapter 4. Hormonal Control During Exercise

    The Endocrine System

    Endocrine Glands and Their Hormones: An Overview

    Hormonal Regulation of Metabolism During Exercise

    Hormonal Regulation of Fluid and Electrolytes During Exercise

    Hormonal Regulation of Caloric Intake

    Chapter 5. Energy Expenditure and Fatigue

    Measuring Energy Expenditure

    Energy Expenditure at Rest and During Exercise

    Fatigue and Its Causes

    Muscle Soreness and Muscle Cramps

    Part II. Cardiovascular and Respiratory Function

    Chapter 6. The Cardiovascular System and Its Control


    Vascular System


    Chapter 7. The Respiratory System and Its Regulation

    Pulmonary Ventilation

    Pulmonary Volumes

    Pulmonary Diffusion

    Transport of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide in the Blood

    Gas Exchange at the Muscles

    Regulation of Pulmonary Ventilation

    Chapter 8. Cardiorespiratory Responses to Acute Exercise

    Cardiovascular Responses to Acute Exercise

    Respiratory Responses to Acute Exercise

    Part III. Exercise Training

    Chapter 9. Principles of Exercise Training


    General Principles of Training

    Resistance Training Programs

    Anaerobic and Aerobic Power Training Programs

    Chapter 10. Adaptations to Resistance Training

    Resistance Training and Gains in Muscular Fitness

    Mechanisms of Gains in Muscle Strength

    Interaction between Resistance Training and Diet

    Resistance Training for Special Populations

    Chapter 11. Adaptations to Aerobic and Anaerobic Training

    Adaptations to Aerobic Training

    Adaptations to Anaerobic Training

    Adaptations to High-Intensity Interval Training

    Specificity of Training and Cross-Training

    Part IV. Environmental Influences on Performance

    Chapter 12. Exercise in Hot and Cold Environments

    Body Temperature Regulation

    Physiological Responses to Exercise in the Heat

    Health Risks During Exercise in the Heat

    Acclimation to Exercise in the Heat

    Exercise in the Cold

    Physiological Responses to Exercise in the Cold

    Health Risks During Exercise in the Cold

    Chapter 13. Exercise at Altitude

    Environmental Conditions at Altitude

    Physiological Responses to Acute Altitude Exposure

    Exercise and Sport Performance at Altitude

    Acclimation: Chronic Exposure to Altitude

    Altitude: Optimizing Training and Performance

    Health Risks of Acute Exposure to Altitude

    Part V. Optimizing Performance in Sport

    Chapter 14. Training for Sport

    Optimizing Training

    Periodization of Training


    Tapering for Peak Performance


    Chapter 15. Body Composition and Nutrition for Sport

    Assessing Body Composition

    Body Composition, Weight, and Sport Performance

    Classification of Nutrients

    Water and Electrolyte Balance

    The Athlete’s Diet

    Chapter 16. Ergogenic Aids in Sport

    Researching Ergogenic Aids

    Nutritional Ergogenic Aids

    Anti-Doping Codes and Drug Testing

    Prohibited Substances and Techniques

    Part VI. Age and Sex Considerations in Sport and Exercise

    Chapter 17. Children and Adolescents in Sport and Exercise

    Growth, Development, and Maturation

    Physiological Responses to Acute Exercise

    Physiological Adaptations to Exercise Training

    Physical Activity Patterns Among Youth

    Sport Performance and Specialization

    Special Issues

    Chapter 18. Aging in Sport and Exercise

    Height, Weight, and Body Composition

    Physiological Responses to Acute Exercise

    Physiological Adaptations to Exercise Training

    Sport Performance

    Special Issues

    Chapter 19. Sex Differences in Sport and Exercise

    Body Size and Composition

    Physiological Responses to Acute Exercise

    Physiological Adaptations to Exercise Training

    Sport Performance

    Special Issues

    Part VII. Physical Activity for Health and Fitness

    Chapter 20. Prescription of Exercise for Health and Fitness

    Health Benefits of Exercise

    Exercise Is Medicine

    Medical Clearance

    Exercise Prescription

    Monitoring Exercise Intensity

    Exercise Program

    Exercise and Rehabilitation of People With Diseases

    Chapter 21. Cardiovascular Disease and Physical Activity

    Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease

    Forms of Cardiovascular Disease

    Understanding the Disease Process

    Determining Individual Risk

    Reducing Risk Through Physical Activity

    Risk of Heart Attack and Death During Exercise

    Exercise Training and Rehabilitating Patients With Heart Disease

    Chapter 22. Obesity, Diabetes, and Physical Activity

    Understanding Obesity

    Weight Loss

    Role of Physical Activity in Weight Management and Risk Reduction

    Understanding Diabetes

    Treatment of Diabetes

    Role of Physical Activity in Diabetes

    About the Author

    W. Larry Kenney, PhD, is the Marie Underhill Noll Chair in Human Performance and a professor of physiology and kinesiology at Pennsylvania State University at University Park. He received his PhD in physiology from Penn State in 1983. Working at Noll Laboratory, Kenney is researching the effects of aging and disease states such as hypertension on the control of blood flow to human skin and has been continuously funded by NIH since 1983. He also studies the effects of heat, cold, and dehydration on various aspects of health, exercise, and athletic performance as well as the biophysics of heat exchange between humans and the environment. He is the author of more than 200 papers, books, book chapters, and other publications.

    Kenney was president of the American College of Sports Medicine from 2003 to 2004. He is a fellow of the American College of Sports Medicine and is active in the American Physiological Society.

    For his service to the university and his field, Kenney was awarded Penn State University’s Faculty Scholar Medal, the Evan G. and Helen G. Pattishall Distinguished Research Career Award, and the Pauline Schmitt Russell Distinguished Research Career Award. He was awarded the American College of Sports Medicine’s New Investigator Award in 1987 and the Citation Award in 2008.

    Kenney has been a member of the editorial and advisory boards for several journals, including Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, Current Sports Medicine Reports (inaugural board member), Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, Journal of Applied Physiology, Human Performance, Fitness Management, and ACSM’s Health & Fitness Journal (inaugural board member). He is also an active grant reviewer for the National Institutes of Health and many other organizations. He and his wife, Patti, have three children, all of whom are or were Division 1 college athletes.

    Jack H. Wilmore, PhD, retired in 2003 from Texas A&M University as a distinguished professor in the department of health and kinesiology. From 1985 to 1997, Wilmore was chair of the department of kinesiology and health education and the Margie Gurley Seay endowed centennial professor at the University of Texas at Austin. Before that, he served on the faculties at the University of Arizona, the University of California, and Ithaca College. Wilmore earned his PhD in physical education from the University of Oregon in 1966.

    Wilmore published 53 chapters, more than 320 peer-reviewed research papers, and 15 books on exercise physiology. He was one of five principal investigators for the Heritage Family Study, a large multicenter clinical trial investigating the possible genetic basis for the variability in the responses of physiological measures and risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes to endurance exercise training. Wilmore’s research interests included determining the role of exercise in the prevention and control of both obesity and coronary heart disease, determining the mechanisms accounting for alterations in physiological function with training and detraining, and factors limiting the performance of elite athletes.

    A former president of the American College of Sports Medicine, Wilmore received the American College of Sports Medicine’s Honor Award in 2006. In addition to serving as chair for many ACSM organizational committees, Wilmore was on the United Statess Olympic Committee’s Sports Medicine Council and chaired their Research Committee. He was a member of the American Physiological Society and a fellow and former president of the American Academy of Kinesiology and Physical Education. Wilmore consulted for several professional sport teams, the California Highway Patrol, the President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sport, NASA, and the U.S. Air Force. He has also served on editorial boards of several journals.

    Wilmore passed away during the preparation of this sixth edition.

    David L. Costill, PhD, is the emeritus John and Janice Fisher chair in exercise science at Ball State University in Muncie, Indiana. He established the Ball State University Human Performance Laboratory in 1966 and served as its director for more than 32 years.

    Costill has written and coauthored more than 430 publications over the course of his career, including six books and articles in both peer-reviewed and lay publications. He was the original editor in chief of the International Journal of Sports Medicine for 12 years. Between 1971 and 1998, he averaged 25 U.S. and international lecture trips each year. He was president of the ACSM from 1976 to 1977, a member of its board of trustees for 12 years, and a recipient of ACSM Citation and Honor Awards. He has received numerous other honors, including the Outstanding Professional Achievement Award from Ohio State University, the President’s Award at Ball State University, and the Distinguished Alumni Award from Cuyahoga Falls Public Schools. Many of his former students are now leaders in the fields of exercise physiology, medicine, and science.

    Costill received his PhD in physical education and physiology from Ohio State University in 1965. He and his wife of 55 years, Judy, have two daughters. Now retired, Dr. Costill is a private pilot, auto and experimental airplane builder, competitive masters swimmer, and former marathon runner.


    All ancillary materials for this text are free to course adopters and available at

    Instructor guide. Includes sample lecture outlines, key points, and student assignments for every chapter in the text, along with sample laboratory exercises and direct links to a range of detailed sources on the Internet.

    Test package. Features a bank of 1,588 questions, including true-or-false, fill-in-the-blank, essay and short-answer, and multiple-choice. The test package is available for use through multiple formats, including a learning management system, Respondus, and rich text.

    Chapter quizzes. Contains 10 questions per chapter that instructors can use in their lessons to gauge student comprehension. Compatible with learning management systems, these quizzes offer easy grading and record keeping for instructors.

    Presentation package plus image bank. Includes 1,138 PowerPoint slides of text, photos, and artwork from the book that instructors can use for class discussion and illustration. The slides in the presentation package can be used directly in PowerPoint or can be printed to make transparencies or handouts for distribution to students. Instructors can easily add, modify, and rearrange the order of the slides as well as search for slides based on key words. The image bank includes all of the illustrations, artwork, content photos, and tables from the text, sorted by chapter to provide instructors with flexibility when creating their own resources, including customized presentations, handouts, and other course resources.

    The presentation package plus image bank is also available for purchase • ISBN 978-1-4925-0440-5

    Animations. Brings 25 images and figures from the text to life through animation, providing an exciting new way to experience course material. Instructors will be able to access the animations from a centralized location for easy reference and use in classes and lectures. The animations are also included in the web study guide for student access.

    Video clips. Includes 29 videos from key leaders in the field discussing recent developments and real-world applications. Instructors will be able to view all video clips from a centralized location and incorporate them into classes and lectures.The video clips are also included in the web study guide for student access.

    Audio clips. Includes 60 audio clips that provide explanations of complex physiological processes to aid students’ understanding of important illustrations in the text. Instructors will be able to access all audio clips from a centralized location and incorporate them into classes and lectures. The audio clips are also included in the web study guide for student access.

    Web study guide. Includes dynamic and interactive learning activities. These activities can be conducted outside the lab and include activity feedback that helps students find the correct information. A Key Terms activity is included in each chapter to reinforce the important terms introduced in the text. The online chapters include quizzes that test students’ knowledge of the material, and the resources section of the study guide includes links to professional journals as well as information on organizations and careers to extend students’ knowledge beyond the school environment. Art animations bring 25 images and figures from the text to life, providing an exciting new way to experience course material. Video clips from key leaders in the field discuss recent developments and real-world applications. Audio clips provide explanations of complex physiological processes to aid students’ understanding of important illustrations in the text. The study guide includes a glossary of terms used in the text.

    The web study guide is also available for purchase separately • ISBN 978-1-4925-0441-2