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Physical Dimensions of Aging-2nd Edition

Physical Dimensions of Aging-2nd Edition

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    Book

    The physical aging process progresses every day—and so does our understanding of it. Physical Dimensions of Aging, Second Edition, will keep students and professionals up to date on the outcomes of the latest research studies and their implications for the elderly in the real world. Physical aging affects us cognitively, psychologically, socially, and spiritually. The book discusses how people age physically and how this aging affects other dimensions of life.

    The second edition of Physical Dimensions of Aging has been updated to integrate research findings on physical aging from more than 100 different journals in myriad fields, creating interdisciplinary coverage on the topic. It provides students and professionals with what they need to know about physical aging in order to conduct clinical research and to work with clients and patients. In doing so, it retains its landmark status as the definitive reference on aging.

    Moreover, Physical Dimensions of Aging, Second Edition, focuses less on explaining the measurement techniques and research design and more on the outcome of the studies and their practical implications for everyday living. This approach will enable professionals and students to do the following:

    • Understand the physical aging process and its effects on other dimensions of life.
    • Apply the latest research in working with adults and the elderly.
    • Become more effective in their professions.

    The structure of this new edition is more conducive to learning and features the following:

    • Chapter objectives
    • Key terms
    • Sidebars of capsule research studies
    • Testimonials, vignettes, and other tidbits that tie the research information to the real world
    • Review questions to assist students in synthesizing and remembering the information
    • Short lists of recommended reading for those who want to pursue the topic in more detail
    • A glossary at the end of the book

    This second edition is organized into five parts. Part I provides an introduction to aging, to the field of gerontology, and to the research process for studying individual differences. Part II describes the physical changes in structure, capacity, and endurance. Part III overviews the factors related to motor coordination, motor control, and skill learning for older adults. Part IV addresses physical–psychosocial relationships, including health, exercise, and cognitive function as well as health-related expectations of quality of life for older adults. Part V highlights physical performance and achievement especially to showcase the results from consistent effort and hard work of physically elite older adults as inspiration for others.

    At a time when many people are telling older adults what they can’t do, professionals should be telling them what they can do. Physical Dimensions of Aging, Second Edition, will equip professionals to do so.

    Audience

    Textbook for upper-level undergraduate and graduate-level courses. A reference for exercise scientists, health and medical specialists, and gerontology specialists.

    Table of Contents

    Part I. An Introduction to Aging

    Chapter 1. Quantity and Quality of Life
    What Is Aging?
    How Is Aging Described?
    What Causes Aging?
    Can the Aging Process Be Slowed?
    How Does Physical Aging Affect the Quality of Life?
    Quality of Life Components
    Health and Fitness Contributions in Different Age Categories
    Key Terms
    Review Questions
    Suggested Readings

    Chapter 2. Individual Differences
    Assessment of Individual Differences
    Sources of Individual Differences
    How Research Design Affects Our View of Individual Differences
    Can the Process of Studying People Influence Individual Differences?
    Biological Age
    Importance of Individual Differences in Understanding Aging Research
    Key Terms
    Review Questions
    Suggested Readings

    Part II. Physical Changes in Structure, Capacity, and Endurance

    Chapter 3. Physical Development and Decline
    Changes in Body Shape
    Changes in Body Composition
    Changes in Bone
    Coping With the Interface of Aging Bones, Muscles, and Tendons
    Skin: Taking the Brunt of the Environment for Years
    Key Terms
    Review Questions
    Suggested Readings

    Chapter 4. Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Function
    Aging Effects on the Cardiovascular System
    Aging Effects on the Respiratory System
    Preventing or Postponing Aging Effects on the Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems
    Key Terms
    Review Questions
    Suggested Readings

    Chapter 5. Muscular Strength and Power
    Strength and Power
    Changes in Muscular Strength With Age
    Why Strength Decreases With Age
    Resistance Training for Strength
    Muscular Power
    Key Terms
    Review Questions
    Suggested Reading

    Part III. Motor Coordination, Motor Control, and Skill

    Chapter 6. Balance and Posture
    Defining the Multiple Dimensions of Balance
    Theoretical Framework of Balance and Mobility
    Intrinsic Systems Contributing to Balance and Mobility
    Age-Associated Changes in the Systems Contributing to Balance and Mobility
    Posture
    Evaluating the Multiple Dimensions of Balance
    Locomotion
    Age-Associated Changes in Gait
    Measuring Gain
    Falling—When Balance Fails
    Can Falling in the Elderly Be Prevented?
    Key Terms
    Review Questions
    Suggested Readings

    Chapter 7. Behavioral Speed
    Response Speed
    Age-Sensitive Factors That Affect Response Speed
    Reaction Time and Variability
    Other Factors Influencing Speed of Processing
    Theories of Response Slowing
    Neurobiological Explanations of Age-Related Slowing
    Movement Speed
    Functional Significance of Behavioral Speed
    Key Terms
    Review Questions
    Suggested Readings

    Chapter 8. Motor Control, Coordination, and Skill
    Definitions of Coordination, Control, and Learning
    Age-Related Sensorimotor Changes That Affect Coordination and Control
    Theoretical Strategies to Explain Coordination, Control, and Learning
    How Coordination and Control Are Accomplished
    Upper Limb and Hand Control
    Aging Effects on Two Important Tasks: Driving and Handwriting
    Learning Physical Skills
    Mechanisms of Learning: Neural Plasticity
    Compensatory Strategies for Losses of Coordination
    Psychological and Emotional Factors That Influence Coordination and Learning
    Key Terms
    Review Questions
    Suggested Readings

    Part IV. Physical–Psychosocial Relationships

    Chapter 9. Health, Exercise, and Cognitive Function
    Concepts of Physical Activity, Health and Fitness, and Cognitive Function
    Health and Physical Activity Effects on Cognitive Function
    Mechanisms by Which Physical Activity May Benefit Cognition
    Process by Which Fitness May Benefit Cognitive Function
    Implications of a Physical Activity–Cognition Relationship for Older Adults
    Key Terms
    Review Questions
    Suggested Reading

    Chapter 10. Health-Related Quality of Life
    Quality of Life
    Well-Being
    Physical Function, Physical Activity, Fitness, and Exercise
    Influence of Exercise on Well-Being
    Characteristics of Exercise Related to Well-Being
    Key Terms
    Review Questions
    Suggested Readings

    Part V. Physical Performance and Achievement

    Chapter 11. Physical Function of Older Adults
    Definitions of Physical Function
    Hierarchy of Physical Function in Older Adults
    Determining Physical Function in the Elderly
    Role of Physical Activity in Postponing Disability and Facilitating Independent Living
    Exercise Interventions and Physical Function
    Expectations for Physical Performance of the Old and Oldest-Old
    Key Terms
    Review Questions
    Suggested Readings

    Chapter 12. Physically Elite Older Adults
    Who Are the “Physically Elite” Older Adults?
    Masters Athletes
    Studying the Elite Physical Performance of Masters Athletes
    Masters Athletes’ Record Performances
    Estimating Age-Related Changes in Physiological Function Capacity
    Nonphysiological Factors That Influence Maximum Sport Performance
    Social Support Systems and the Positive Secular Trend
    How Do They Do It?
    Key Terms
    Review Questions
    Suggested Readings

    About the Author

    Waneen W. Spirduso, EdD, is the Oscar and Anne Mauzy Regents Professor in the department of kinesiology and health education at The University of Texas (UT) at Austin. She was chair of the UT (Austin) department of kinesiology and health education for 14 years and served as interim dean of the College of Education for 2-1/2 years. Since 1975 her academic interests, research, and presentations have focused on issues central to gerontology and kinesiology, and her research programs have been sponsored by four of the National Institutes of Health and several local foundations.

    A widely published author, Dr. Spirduso is also a popular speaker at conferences across the United States. She is the recipient of many honors and awards, including recognition as the Texas Association for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance Scholar in 1986 and the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance Scholar (AAHPERD) in 1987. She served two terms as president of the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity (NASPSPA) and one term as president of the American Academy of Kinesiology and Physical Education (AAKPE).

    Dr. Spirduso is a Fellow of the Gerontological Society of America, and a member of AAHPERD, ACSM, and AAKPE.

    Karen L. Francis, PhD, is an assistant professor in the department of exercise and sport science at the University of San Francisco. She received her master's degree and PhD in motor control and learning and a doctoral portfolio in gerontology from the University of Texas at Austin. Dr. Francis' primary research interest is in the loss of hand motor control that occurs with aging. She is a member of the Gerontological Society of America, the Society for Neuroscience, and the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity.

    Priscilla Gilliam MacRae, PhD, is professor of sports medicine and director of the Motor Behavior Laboratory at Pepperdine University. She received her MS from the University of Arizona and her PhD from the University of Texas at Austin. She completed postdoctoral training at the University of Southern California. MacRae has published 38 research articles and book chapters, presented in national and international meetings, and received the Harriet and Charles Luckman Distinguished Teaching Award from Pepperdine University. Her research has been funded by the National Institute on Aging (NIA), AARP Andrus Foundation, Jewish Homes for the Aging, California Physical Therapy Association, and Pepperdine University. Dr. MacRae is a fellow of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and a member of the Southwest Chapter of ACSM, the American Alliance of Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD), the Society for Neuroscience, and the Gerontological Society of America.

    Dr. MacRae's research focuses on effects of exercise on physiological and psychological aspects of aging. Her current research focuses on how older adults acquire new motor skills, including changes in older adults' ability to control force in a visuomotor tasks that involve precision and speed. Her research populations have included older adults at many levels of function, from elite female marathoners to nursing-home residents.