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Physical Activity Instruction of Older Adults

Physical Activity Instruction of Older Adults

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    Book

    Physical Activity Instruction of Older Adults is the first book to detail the fundamental knowledge and skills associated with the training modules outlined in the International Curriculum Guidelines for Preparing Physical Activity Instructors of Older Adults. The curriculum guidelines, published in 2004, were developed by an international coalition of senior fitness specialists.

    Physical Activity Instruction of Older Adults presents the competency-based objectives that fitness instructors should know and be able to perform to lead safe and effective physical activity programs for older adults with diverse functional capabilities.

    A comprehensive blend of theory, practical content, and detailed instruction, the text is organized into five parts:
    Part I introduces the new field of gerokinesiology; provides an overview of the aging process; and discusses the benefits of an active lifestyle in disease prevention, health promotion, and quality of life.
    Part II provides information and guidelines for preexercise screenings and assessments, client feedback, and goal setting.
    Part III focuses on the core fitness and skill components of a well-rounded physical activity program for older adults, including warm-up and cool-down, flexibility and resistance training, aerobic exercise, and balance and mobility training.
    Part IV introduces specialty program and training methods, including exercise such as yoga, aquatic exercise, and master athlete training.
    Part V covers how to apply principles of motor learning to program design; teaching, leadership, and motivational skills; special considerations for specific medical conditions; and legal and professional ethics and standards for instructors.

    Application activities at the end of each chapter help the reader to synthesize the information and prepare them to design well-rounded physical activity programs for older adults. Other student-friendly elements include chapter objectives, introductions, summaries, study questions, key terms, and key points. In addition, numerous photos, figures, and tables make the book not just interesting, but visually appealing as well. This book is ideal for undergraduate students, and it is an excellent reference for physical activity instructors of older adults, fitness specialists, personal trainers, and activity directors.

    Audience

    Reference for physical activity instructors of older adults, fitness specialists, personal trainers, activity directors, activity assistants, and therapeutic recreation specialists; textbook for undergraduate students.

    Table of Contents

    Part I. Overview of Aging and Physical Activity
    Chapter 1. The Field of Gerokinesiology
    Demographics of Older Adults
    Benefits of Physical Activity
    Defining Old Age
    Gerokinesiology: A New Field of Study
    Curriculum Development
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Recommended Readings
    Study Questions
    Application Activities

    Chapter 2. Predictors of Successful Aging
    Biological Theories of Aging
    Physical Activity As a Determinant of Successful Aging
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Recommended Readings
    Study Questions
    Application Activities

    Chapter 3. Psychological and Sociocultural Aspects of Physical Activity for Older Adults
    Aging Stereotypes
    Physical Activity, Psychological Well-Being, and Quality of Life
    Social Implications of Regular Physical Activity
    Promoting Physical Activity
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Recommended Readings
    Study Questions
    Application Activities

    Chapter 4. Physiological Aspects of Aging
    Cardiovascular and Respiratory Function
    Muscle Function
    Joint Mobility
    Bone Mass
    Neurological Function
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Recommended Readings
    Study Questions
    Application Activities

    Part II. Screening, Assessment, and Goal Setting
    Chapter 5. Preexercise and Health Screening
    Preexercise Screening
    Screening Steps
    Additional Screening Tools
    Implications for Program Design and Management
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Recommended Readings
    Study Questions
    Application Activities

    Chapter 6. Field-Based Physical and Mobility Assessments
    Functional Fitness Framework
    Considerations for Test Selection and Evaluation
    Selected Assessment Tools
    Guidelines for Group Testing
    Interpreting Test Results
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Recommended Readings
    Study Questions
    Application Activities

    Chapter 7. Laboratory-Based Physiological Assessment of Older Adults
    Cardiorespiratory Function
    Muscular Strength
    Body Composition
    Balance
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Recommended Readings
    Study Questions
    Application Activities

    Chapter 8. Goal Setting and Behavioral Management
    Factors Influencing Older Adults’ Exercise Participation
    Strategies for Behavioral Change
    Physically Active Lifestyles
    Implications for Program Design and Management
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Recommended Readings
    Study Questions
    Application Activities

    Part III. Core Program Principles and Training Methods
    Chapter 9. A New Approach to Designing Exercise Programs for Older Adults
    Heterogeneity of Older Adults
    Optimizing Physical Function Through Exercise
    Exercise Variables and Principles for Program Design
    Specific Exercise Principles for Older Adults
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Recommended Readings
    Study Questions
    Application Activities

    Chapter 10. Principles of the Warm-Up and Cool-Down
    Physiological Changes Associated with Warm-Up
    Physiological Changes Associated with Cool-Down
    Guiding Principles of the Warm-Up
    Developing the Warm-Up
    Developing the Cool-Down
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Recommended Readings
    Study Questions
    Application Activities

    Chapter 11. Flexibility Training
    Age-Associated Changes in Flexibility
    Types of Stretching Techniques
    Incorporating Flexibility Training Into the Exercise Program
    Examples of Flexibility Exercises
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Recommended Readings
    Study Questions
    Application Activities

    Chapter 12. Resistance Training
    Benefits of Resistance Training
    Principles of Resistance Training
    Training Components and Variables
    Resistance Training for Older Adults
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Recommended Readings
    Study Questions
    Application Activities

    Chapter 13. Aerobic Endurance Training
    Benefits of Aerobic Endurance Training for Older Adults
    Principles and Considerations for Aerobic Endurance Training
    Variables for Aerobic Endurance Training
    Types of Aerobic Exercises
    Training Precautions
    Implications for Program Design and Management
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Recommended Readings
    Study Questions
    Application Activities

    Chapter 14. Balance and Mobility Training
    Age-Associated Changes in Balance and Mobility
    Balance and Mobility Exercises
    Manipulating the Challenge in a Group Setting
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Recommended Readings
    Study Questions
    Application Activities

    Part IV. Specialty Programs and Training Methods
    Chapter 15. Mind-Body Exercise Training
    Mindful Exercise
    Mind-Body Exercise Programs
    Implications for Program Design and Management
    Mindful Exercise Precautions
    Yoga and Tai Chi Teacher Training Resources
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Recommended Readings
    Study Questions
    Application Activities

    Chapter 16. Aquatic Training
    Benefits of Aquatic Training
    Considerations Unique to Aquatic Exercise
    Aquatic Training Components
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Recommended Readings
    Study Questions
    Application Activities

    Chapter 17. Training Master Athletes
    Master Athletes Defined
    Principles of Training
    Components of Master Athlete Training Programs
    Training Precautions
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Recommended Readings
    Study Questions
    Application Activities

    Part V.Program Design, Leadership, and Risk Management
    Chapter 18. Applying Motor Learning Principles to Program Design
    Nervous System Changes and Motor Skill Learning
    Movement Analysis of Skills
    Motor Learning Principles for the Physical Activity Instructor
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Recommended Readings
    Study Questions
    Application Activities

    Chapter 19. Teaching and Leadership Skills
    Teaching Skills
    Leadership Skills
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Recommended Readings
    Study Questions
    Application Activities

    Chapter 20. Designing and Managing Group Conditioning Classes
    Key Principles of Group Dynamics
    Making Group Activity Fun
    Records Management
    Marketing Considerations
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Recommended Readings
    Study Questions
    Application Activities

    Chapter 21. Exercise Considerations for Medical Conditions
    Cardiovascular Conditions
    Pulmonary Disorders
    Diabetes
    Musculoskeletal Conditions
    Neurological and Cognitive Conditions
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Recommended Readings
    Study Questions
    Application Activities

    Chapter 22. Legal Standards, Risk Management, and Professional Ethics
    The Law and the Physical Activity Instructor
    A Risk Management Plan
    Ethical Guidelines for the Physical Activity Instructor
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Recommended Readings
    Study Questions
    Application Activities

    Appendix A. International Curriculum Guidelines for Preparing Physical Activity Instructors of Older Adults With the Aging and Life Course, World Health Organization
    Appendix B. Professional Ethics for Personal Fitness Trainers
    Appendix C. Professional Ethics for Group Fitness Instructors

    Study Question Answer Key
    References
    Index
    About the Editors

    About the Editor

    C. Jessie Jones, PhD, is a professor in the division of kinesiology and health science, codirector of the Center for Successful Aging, and past director of the Lifespan Wellness Clinic and Gerontology Programs at California State University at Fullerton. She is a fellow of the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Academy of Kinesiology and Physical Education. Dr. Jones has an extensive teaching and research background in the area of gerokinesiology. Her areas of specialty include assessing functional fitness of older adults, curriculum standards for training physical activity instructors of older adults, and designing senior fitness programs.

    Dr. Jones has taught senior fitness classes and conducted training workshops for instructors for more than 20 years. Her national and international reputation for research, program design, and curriculum development in this field has led to her recent appointment as co-editor in chief of the Journal of Aging and Physical Activity. Her work has been covered in numerous publications. She is coauthor of the Senior Fitness Test Manual (2001, Human Kinetics) with its companion training video and software. The Senior Fitness Test is the only functional fitness test with established reliability, validity, and national norms based on the testing of 7,000 men and women between the ages of 60 and 94.

    Debra J. Rose, PhD, is a professor in the division of kinesiology and health science and codirector of the Center for Successful Aging at California State University at Fullerton. She is also a professor in the physical therapy department at Chapman University in Orange, California. Her primary research focus is on the enhancement of mobility and the prevention of falls in later years.

    Dr. Rose is nationally and internationally recognized for her work in fall risk reduction assessment and programming. Her research in fall risk reduction in the elderly has been published in numerous peer-reviewed publications, including the Journal of the American Geriatric Society, Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Neurology Report, and the Journal of Aging and Physical Activity. The innovative fall risk reduction program she developed was recognized by the National Council on Aging as one of seven meritorious programs nationwide that promotes a healthy, active lifestyle. Dr. Rose's entire program was published in her book, FallProof! A Comprehensive Balance and Mobility Training Program (2003, Human Kinetics). She is a fellow of the American Academy of Kinesiology and Physical Education, former executive board member of the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity, and co-editor in chief of the Journal of Aging and Physical Activity.

    Reviews

    “Physical Activity Instruction of Older Adults, is the first major textbook to detail the fundamental knowledge and skills that physical activity instructors of older adults need.”
    The Journal on Active Aging