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Measurement Issues in Aging and Physical Activity

Measurement Issues in Aging and Physical Activity

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    Book

    Based on the 10th Measurement and Evaluation Symposium, “Measurement Issues and Challenges in Aging Research,” Measurement Issues in Aging and Physical Activity considers research from experts around the world relating to the latest questions, challenges, and techniques in aging and measurement. The reference addresses a range of topics in aging research, including issues from the fields of kinesiology, biology, physiology, technology, urban planning, measurement, and statistics.

    Measurement Issues in Aging and Physical Activity breaks new ground with a discussion of multicultural factors related to physical activity promotion and intervention. Ideas include using culture as a catalyst for active living and using culture-based physical activity as an alternative approach to promotion of active living. The reference further examines multicultural issues with a look at alternative medicine, including an account of a demonstration of qi-gong, a traditional Chinese exercise, from the symposium.
    • Measurement Issues in Aging and Physical Activity also provides information on
      the benefits of and barriers to exercise in older adults;
    • interventions to improve quality of life in older adults;
    • advanced statistical methodologies, with discussion of structural equation modeling and longitudinal data analysis; and
    • issues regarding training of future aging research and measurement specialists.

    In addition, a new term, kinesmetrics, is introduced for the field of measurement and evaluation. Kinesmetrics is defined as a discipline for developing and applying measurement theory, statistics, and mathematical analysis to the field of kinesiology.

    The groundbreaking Measurement Issues in Aging and Physical Activity explores subjects in a range of research topics. For both veterans and newcomers to the field, this reference will be a comprehensive guide to the latest research on aging in measurement and physical activity.

    The 10th Measurement and Evaluation Symposium was supported by the American Association for Active Lifestyle and Fitness (AAALF), the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), the Measurement and Evaluation Council, the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and Human Kinetics.

    Audience

    Audiences: A reference for aging, physical activity, and measurement specialists.

    Table of Contents

    Part I: Critical Issues in Aging and Physical Activity Research
    Chapter 1. Human Gene Map, Physical Activity, and Aging
    Tuomo Rankinen, PhD
    • Genetics and Health-Related Fitness
    • Genetic Research Approaches: Candidate Genes Versus Genomic Linkage Scans
    • Genetics, Aging, and Health-Related Fitness
    • Summary and Conclusions


    Chapter 2. Physical Activity and Older Adults: Impact on Physical Frailty and Disability
    Miriam E. Nelson, PhD, FACSM, and Rebecca Seguin, MS, CSCS
    • Overview of the Health Benefits of Exercise and Older Adults
    • Initial Strength Training Research With Older Adults
    • Frailty and Falls
    • Bone and Joint Health
    • Endurance
    • Strength and Functional Performance
    • A Variety of Strength Training Prescriptions
    • The Potential of Power Training
    • Conclusion


    Chapter 3. Exercise Dose-Response Effects in Older Adults
    Roy J. Shephard
    • Relative Versus Absolute Intensity of Effort
    • Experimental Evidence
    • Some Problems of Research Design
    • Is Aerobic Fitness Enough?
    • Moderate or Intense Physical Activity: A Public Policy Debate
    • Consensus Recommendations
    • Systematic Review of Dose-Response Issues
    • All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality
    • Research Priorities


    Chapter 4. Control and Regulation of Movement in Elderly Adults
    Caroline J. Ketcham and George E. Stelmach
    • Movement Characteristics
    • Coordination
    • Skill Learning
    • Visual Monitoring
    • Concluding Remarks


    Chapter 5. Environment, Culture, and Physical Activity of Older Persons
    Uriel Cohen, Darch, and Ruth Cohen, PhD
    • Culture: A Working Definition
    • Active Living: A Working Definition
    • Benefits of Active Living: Contributions to Physical and Mental Health
    • The Problem: Barriers to Active Living
    • The Premise: Cultural Heritage As a Catalyst for Active Living
    • The Context of the Case Study: History, Culture, Demographics, and Economy
    • Conclusions


    Part II: Measurement Challenges in Aging Research
    Chapter 6. Physical Activity, Aging, and Quality of Life: Implications for Measurement
    Edward McAuley and Steriani Elavsky
    • Conceptualizing and Defining Quality of Life
    • Measuring Quality of Life in Physical Activity Research
    • Can Physical Activity Improve Quality of Life in Older Adults?
    • Can Physical Activity Improve Quality of Life in Cancer Patients?
    • Is There a Dose-Response Relationship for Physical Activity Effects on Quality of Life?
    • Issues to Consider in the Physical Activity and Quality of Life Relationship
    • Concluding Remarks


    Chapter 7. Assessment Issues Related to Physical Activity and Disability
    James H. Rimmer, PhD
    • Defining Disability
    • Importance of Physical Activity in Improving Function
    • Impact of the Environment on Health and Wellness
    • Measurement Issues in Disability and Physical Activity
    • Conclusion


    Chapter 8. Measuring the Ever-Changing “Environments” for Physical Activity in Older Adults
    James R. Morrow, Jr., PhD, and Dale P. Mood, PhD
    • Measurement Issues
    • Statistical Analysis
    • Sample Instrumentation Issues
    • The Challenge
    • Future Research


    Chapter 9. Translating Research to Practice: Real-World Evaluation and Measurement Issues in Moving From Efficacy to Effectiveness Research
    Marcia Ory, PhD, MPH; Diane Dowdy, PhD; Brigid Sanner; Robin Mockenhaupt, PhD, MPH; Laura Leviton, PhD; Russell Glasgow, PhD; Abby King, PhD; Cynthia Castro, PhD; Michele Guerra, MS, CHES; and Sara Wilcox, PhD
    • The Evolving Research Base
    • Principles of Behavior Change Research
    • Behavioral Change Consortium
    • Key Measurement/Methods Questions
    • Furthering Translational Research


    Chapter 10. Qi, Aging, and Measurement: History, Mystery, and Controversy
    Weimo Zhu, PhD
    • What Are Qi and Qi-Gong?
    • A Brief History of Qi-Gong
    • Qi-Gong and the World
    • Qi-Gong Schools and Classification
    • Mystery and Controversy Surrounding Qi-Gong
    • Qi-Gong and Health
    • Qi-Gong and Aging
    • Qi Measurements and Challenges
    • Future Research Directions


    Part III: New Measurement Methods and Techniques
    Chapter 11. Common Shape Models for Trend Curves
    Roderick P. McDonald
    • Common Shape Models
    • Conclusions


    Chapter 12. Emergent Technologies and Remote Clinical Assessment
    Leigh W. Jerome

    Part IV: Measurement in Kinesiology: Past, Present, and Future
    Chapter 13. Measurement and Evaluation Council: Past, Present, and Future
    Ted A. Baumgartner
    • Structure
    • Past
    • Present
    • Future


    Chapter 14. The Changing Face of the Measurement Specialist in Kinesiology
    Stephen Silverman
    • Coming Clean
    • Changes in the Measurement and Evaluation Field
    • Issues and Questions for the Future
    • Conclusion

    Appendix: Program of the 10th Measurement and Evaluation Symposium
    References
    About the Editors

    About the Author

    Weimo Zhu, PhD, is currently an associate professor in the department of kinesiology at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and a visiting professor at Guangzhou Institute of Physical Education and Shanghai Institute of Physical Education, both in China. His major area of research is measurement and evaluation in kinesiology.

    Dr. Zhu's primary research interests are in the study and application of new measurement theories (e.g., item response theory) and models to the field of kinesiology. His research works have earned him international recognition. He served as the measurement section editor of the Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport from 1999 to 2005, and he is a fellow of the American Academy of Kinesiology and Physical Education, American College of Sports Medicine, and Research Consortium, AAHPERD. He is a member of the Fitnessgram/Activitygram Advisory Committee. He is also a member of the editorial board for three other journals and serves on the executive committees of several national and international professional organizations. Dr. Zhu was the chair of the Measurement and Evaluation Council, AAHPERD. Currently, Dr. Zhu is also examining the application of advanced measurement and statistical techniques to several measurement issues in the area of public health. A tangible practical application of Zhu's theoretical work has been his work in the assessment of physical activity, and he is exploring a new idea (physical activity space) and technologies (voice-recognition and automatic scoring) to solve the problems raised.

    Wojtek Chodzko-Zajko, PhD, serves as both department head and professor of kinesiology at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Dr. Chodzko-Zajko's primary research is in the area of aging and physical activity. For the past 15 years, he has focused on the effects of exercise and physical activity on the health and quality of life in older adults.

    Dr. Chodzko-Zajko chairs the Active Aging Partnership, a national coalition in healthy aging linking the American College of Sports Medicine, the National Institute of Aging, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the American Geriatrics Society, the National Council on the Aging, the American Association of Retired Persons, and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. He was editor of the Journal of Aging and Physical Activity and president of the International Society for Aging and Physical Activity. Since 2002, Dr. Chodzko-Zajko has served as principal investigator of the National Blueprint Project, a coalition of more than 50 national organizations with a joint commitment to promoting independent, active aging in the older adult population.