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Measurement in Sport and Exercise Psychology eBook With Web Resource

Measurement in Sport and Exercise Psychology eBook With Web Resource

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    Ebook

    Measurement in Sport and Exercise Psychology provides a complete analysis of the tools and methods used in sport and exercise psychology research. Each chapter of this accessible text presents key measurement variables and concepts, including their definitions; an evaluation of the measurement constructs and tools available; and an explanation of any controversies in each topic. The text includes access to an online resource that presents 14 measurement instruments in their entirety. This resource also contains additional web links to many other measurement instruments.

    Drawing on their experience as leading researchers in the field, editors Tenenbaum, Eklund, and Kamata have selected a team of recognized scholars to bring both breadth and depth to this essential resource. By thoroughly examining each measurement tool, Measurement in Sport and Exercise Psychology assists readers in determining strengths and limitations of each tool and discovering which tools are best suited to their research projects. Readers will also gain critical knowledge to expand the field by recognizing opportunities for new methods of measurement and evaluation.

    The text begins with a historical review of measurement in sport and exercise psychology followed by a comprehensive description of theories and measurement issues. It provides detailed information regarding ethical and cultural issues inherent in the selection of specific testing protocols as well as issues in interpreting meta-analysis. This is followed by discussion of the commonly used constructs and inventories in three areas: cognition, perception, and motivation measurement; emotion (affect) and coping measurement; and social and behavioral measurement.

    Recommendations for researchers and practitioners included at the end of each chapter provide starting points for considering ways to incorporate chapter content into research projects and professional practice. Tables located at the end of each chapter summarize key information for quick reference and provide online sources, when available, so that readers can access each measurement tool. Original source information is provided for those tools not available online.

    Measurement in Sport and Exercise Psychology assists readers in evaluating the effectiveness of specific measurement tools. As the most complete and up-to-date directory of tools and inventories in the field of sport and exercise, this text offers a thorough explanation of considerations, controversies, recommendations, and locations for accessing these measurement tools.

    Audience

    A reference for academic libraries, researchers, and consultants in sport and exercise psychology; a graduate-level textbook in research methods or measurement courses in sport psychology or sport science disciplines.

    Table of Contents

    Chapter 1. Measurement in Sport and Exercise Psychology: Introduction and Thoughts about Scale Construction
    Gershon Tenenbaum, Robert Eklund, and Akihito Kamata
    Concepts, Items, and Responses
    Steps in Designing Measures
    Assigning Meaning to Measures
    Introspection and Measurement: Reliability and Validity
    Conclusion

    Chapter 2. Measurement Practice in Sport and Exercise Psychology: A Historical, Comparative, and Psychometric View
    Weimo Zhu
    Key Developments in Educational and Psychological Measurement
    Progresses and Status of Sport and Exercise Psychology Measurement
    Conclusion

    Part I. Measurement Basics, Methods, and Issues

    Measurement Basics

    Chapter 3. Reliability
    Brandon K. Vaughn, Hwa-Young Lee, and Akihito Kamata
    The Theory of Reliability
    Estimating the Reliability Coefficient
    Standard Error of Measurement
    Evaluating the Magnitudes of Reliability Coefficients
    Improving Reliability
    Deletion
    Relationship to Validity
    Reliability for Multidimensional Instruments
    Misconceptions and Misuses of Reliability
    Conclusion

    Chapter 4. Conceptualizing Validity
    Brandon K. Vaughn and Sarah R. Daniel
    Validity in Premodern Era
    Collecting Evidence of Validity
    Validity in Modern Era
    Issues of Validity in Research Designs
    Conclusion

    Chapter 5. Validating Scores from New Assessments: A Comparison of Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory
    Yaakov Petscher and Christopher Schatschneider
    Level of Analysis
    Item Difficulty
    Item Discrimination
    IRT Parameter Invariance
    Constructing the Assessment
    Sample Size
    Conclusion

    Chapter 6. Factorial Invariance: Tools and Concepts for Strengthening Research
    Ryne Estabrook
    Factorial Invariance
    Configural Invariance
    Metric Invariance
    Alternative Approaches
    Fitting Invariance Models
    Ordinal Data
    Conclusion

    Chapter 7. Modeling Change Over Time
    Kevin J. Grimm and Nilam Ram
    Sample Data
    Analysis
    Latent Growth Curve Modeling
    Conclusion

    Chapter 8. Rasch Modeling in Sort
    Bernd Strauss, Dirk Busch, and Gershon Tenenbaum
    The Basic Idea of the Rasch Model
    An Example for the Use of the Ordinal Rasch Model
    Extensions and Generalizations of Rasch Modeling
    The Use of the Mixed Rasch Model: An Example
    Probabilistic Test Models in Sport Psychology and Exercise Sports
    Conclusion

    Measurement Methods

    Chapter 9. Idiosyncratic Measures in Sport
    William A. Edmonds, Michael B. Johnson, Gershon Tenenbaum, and Akihito Kamata
    Theoretical and Conceptual Framework
    Eight-Step Idiosyncratic Approach

    Chapter 10. Dynamic Assessment in Sport
    Thomas Schack
    Dynamic Assessment
    The Concept and Procedures of Dynamic Assessment: An Introduction
    Dynamic Assessment of Motor Learning Potential
    Further Areas for Applying Dynamic Assessment in Sport Psychology
    Conclusion

    Chapter 11. Verbal Reports of Cognitive Processes
    David Eccles
    Validity of Verbal Reports of Cognitive Processes
    Methods Used in Studies of Psychological Skill Use
    Summary of Methods Used in Studies of Psychological Skill Use
    Concerns Over the Use of Verbal Report Methods
    Conclusion

    Chapter 12. Making Sense of Words and Stories in Qualitative Research: Some Strategies for Consideration
    Brett Smith and Andrew Sparks
    Analysing the Whats: Content
    Analysing the Hows: A Performative Narrative Analysis
    Showing the Whats and Hows. Creative Analytic Practices
    Conclusion

    Measurement Issues

    Chapter 13. Developmentally Informed Measurement in Sport and Exercise Psychology Research
    Alan L. Smith, Travis E. Dorsch, and Eva V. Monsma
    Cognitive Abilities and Structures
    Social Development
    Biological Maturation
    Change in Multiple Domains
    Conclusion

    Chapter 14. Cultural Sport Psychology: Special Measurement Considerations
    Tatiana V Ryba, Robert J. Schinke and Natalia B. Stambulova
    Main Assumptions and Principles of Cultural Sport Psychology
    “Measuring” Culture
    Conclusion

    Chapter 15. Synthesizing Measurement Outcomes through Meta-Analysis
    Betsy J. Becker and Soyeon Ahn
    What is Meta-Analysis?
    Meta-Analysis in Sport and Exercise Psychology
    Measurement Issues in Meta-Analysis
    Conclusion

    Chapter 16. Ethics: Assessment and Measurement in Sport and Exercise Psychology
    Jack C. Watson, Edward F. Etzel and Justine Vosloo
    Ethics and Ethics Codes
    Use of Technology
    Billing for Services
    Cultural Issues
    Conclusion

    Part II. Cognition, Perception, and Motivation Measurement

    Cognition Measurement

    Chapter 17. Cognitive Measures Related to Exercise and Physical Activity
    Jennifer L. Etnier
    Theoretical Framework
    Limitations and Sources of Confusion
    Primary Measurement Tools
    Examples From the Literature
    Recommendations for Researchers and Practitioners

    Chapter 18. Anticipation and Decision Making: Skills, Methods, and Measures
    Andrew M. Williams and Bruce Abernethy
    Anticipation in Sport: Capturing Performance
    Decision Making in Sport: Capturing Performance
    Recommendations for Researchers and Practitioners

    Chapter 19. A Method for Measuring Mental Representations
    Thomas Schack
    Mental Representations
    Cognitive Representation and Performance: Perspectives and Methods
    Mental Representations. A Theoretical Framework
    Measurement of Mental Representations
    Measuring Mental Representations in Sport: An Illustration of the SDA-M Method
    Measuring Mental Representations in Sport: Insight From Empirical Studies
    Recommendations for Researchers and Practitioners

    Self-Perception Measurement

    Chapter 20. Physical Self-Concept
    Herbert W. Marsh and Jacqueline H.S. Cheng
    Construct Definition of PSC: Theoretical and Conceptual Framework
    Dimensions and Sources of Confusion: Self-Esteem Versus Self-concept and Self-Efficacy
    Main Tools to Measure the Physical Self
    Examples from the Literature Where the Measures Were Used
    Recommendations for Researchers and Practitioners

    Chapter 21. Exercise and Self-Perception Constructs
    Catherine Sabiston, James R. Whitehead, and Robert C. Eklund
    Self-Esteem and Self-Concept
    Exercise Identity
    Physical Activity Self-Definition
    Exerciser Self-Schemata
    Possible Selves
    Dimensions and Sources of Confusion
    Recommendations for Researchers and Practitioners

    Chapter 22. Exercise-Related Self-Efficacy
    Edward McAuley, Siobhan M. White, Emily L. Mailey, and Thomas R. Wojcicki
    Theoretical Background. Self-Efficacy, and Its Role in Social Cognitive Theory
    Primary Self-Efficacy Measures
    Evidence for Support: Examples From the Literature
    Further Issues to Consider
    Recommendations for Researchers and Practitioners

    Chapter 23. Self-Efficacy and Collective-Efficacy
    Lori Dithurbide and Deborah L. Feltz
    Definitions
    Theoretical and Conceptual Framework
    Sources of Collective Efficacy Information
    Dimensions of Self- and Collective Efficacy and Sources of Confusion
    Guidelines for Constructing Self- and Collective Efficacy Scales
    Examples From Literature
    Recommendations for Researchers and Practitioners

    Chapter 24. Effort Perception
    Selen Razon, Jasmin Hutchinson, and Gershon Tenenbaum
    A Historical Perspective on Scaling Perceived Exertion
    Modern Psychophysics
    Models of Psychobiological Responses to Exercise
    The Measurement of Perceived Effort
    Recommendations for Researchers and Practitioners

    Motivation Measurement

    Chapter 25. A Review and Critique of Measures of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation in Sport and Exercise
    Robert J. Vallerand, Eric D. Donahue, Marc-Andre K. Lafreniere
    Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation Defined
    The Nature of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation
    A Multidimensional View of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation
    Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation at Different Levels of Generality
    Evaluation of Measures of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation in Sport and Exercise
    Recommendations for Researchers and Practitioners

    Chapter 26. Exercise Motivation
    Philip M. Wilson
    Overview of Key Concepts and Theoretical Frameworks
    Theory and Measurement
    Exercise Motivation Instruments: A Review
    Recommendations for Researchers and Practitioners

    Chapter 27. Achievement Motivation Processes
    David E. Conroy and Amanda L. Hyde
    A Brief History of Achievement Motivation Theories
    Review of Achievement Motive Measures
    Review of Achievement Goal Measures
    Other Measures
    Recommendations for Researchers and Practitioners

    Part III. Emotion and Affect and Coping Measurement

    Chapter 28. Affect, Mood, and Emotion
    Panteleimon Ekkekakis
    Choosing a Measure: A Three-Step Process
    Understanding the Differences Between Affect, Emotion, And Mood
    The Hierarchical Structure of the Affective Domain: An Integrative Framework
    Review of Specific Measures
    Recommendations for Researchers and Practitioners

    Chapter 29. Emotional Reactivity
    Christopher M. Janelle and Kelly M. Gamble
    Definitions and Dimensions of the Variable Construct
    Dimensions and Sources of Confusion
    Theoretical and Conceptual Frameworks
    Recommendations for Researchers and Practitioners

    Chapter 30. Flow
    Susan Jackson and Robert C. Eklund
    Theoretical Framework
    Flow Dimensions
    Sources of Flow Construct Confusion
    Measurement Tools
    Examples From the Literature
    Recommendations for Researchers and Practitioners

    Chapter 31. Burnout
    Robert C. Eklund, Tom Raedeke, and Allen L. Smith
    Conceptualizing Athlete Burnout as a Syndrome
    Sources of Confusion About Athlete Burnout
    Burnout Measurement Tools for Use with Athletes
    Example Studies Using the ABQ in the Literature
    Recommendations for Researchers and Practitioners

    Chapter 32. Bayesian Approach of Measuring Competitive Crisis
    Michael Bar-Eli and Gershon Tenenbaum
    Bayesian Notions in Psychology. An Approach to Judgment and Decision Making
    The Theory of Psychological Performance Crisis
    Bayes’ Theorem: A Measurement Tool for Developing the Individual Performance Psychological Crisis
    Recommendations to Researchers and Practitioners

    Chapter 33. Psychological Skills
    Robert Weinberg and Samuel Forlenza
    History and Theoretical Foundations
    Issues and Limitations in the Measurement and Assessment of Psychological Skills
    Psychological Skill Assessment and Measurement
    Individual Assessments of Psychological Skills
    Recommendations for Researchers and Practitioners

    Chapter 34. Coping in Sport and Exercise
    Ronnie Lidor, Peter R.E. Crocker, and Amber D. Mosewich
    Coping—Concept and Definition
    Instruments and Questionnaires Assessing Coping Skills
    Preperformance Coping Strategies: The Case of Self-Paced Tasks
    Recommendations for Researchers and Practitioners

    Part IV. Social and Behavior Measurement

    Chapter 35. Cohesion: Its Nature and Measurement
    Albert V. Carron, Mark A. Eys, and Luc J. Martin
    Definitions of Cohesion
    Conceptual Framework for Cohesion
    Sources of Confusion
    Questionnaires for Assessing Cohesion
    Overview of Questionnaire Use
    Recommendations for Researchers and Practitioners

    Chapter 36. A Sequential Analysis of team Communications and Effects on Team Performance
    Allan Jeong
    Introduction to Team Communications
    Theoretical Framework
    Recommendations for Researchers and Practitioners

    Chapter 37. Models and Measurement of Leadership in Sport
    Packianathan Chellandurai
    Theoretical Frameworks of Leadership in Sport
    Sources of Confusion
    Measures of Leadership
    Measures in Decision Styles Research
    Measurement of Autonomy-Supportive Behavior
    Confusion in Purposes of Sport Participation
    Recommendations for Researchers and Practitioners

    Chapter 38. Prosocial and Antisocial Behaviors
    Maria Kavussanu and Ian D. Boardley
    Definitions of the Construct
    Theoretical and Conceptual Framework
    Dimensions and Sources of Confusion
    Main Tools for Measuring the Variables
    Examples From the Literature
    Recommendations for Researchers and Practitioners

    Chapter 39. Behavioral Measurement of Physical Activity
    Claudio R. Nigg, Patricia J. Jordan, and Angela Atkins
    Concept Definitions
    Conceptual Issues
    Tools for Measuring Physical Activity
    Recommendations for Researchers and Practitioners

    About the Editor

    Gershon Tenenbaum, PhD, is a professor of educational psychology at Florida State University in Tallahassee, where he teaches courses on measurement in sport and exercise. He previously served as the director of the Center of Research and Sport Medicine at the Wingate Institute in Israel and was the coordinator of the sport psychology program at the University of Southern Queensland in Australia.

    Tenenbaum’s research on measurement and statistical methods in the domain of sport and exercise psychology has been widely published, and he has published over 300 articles in peer-refereed journals and book chapters in leading journals in psychology, sport and exercise psychology, sports medicine, and sport sciences. In addition, he has edited and written several handbooks and books, including the Handbook of Sport and Exercise Psychology, Third Edition (with Robert Eklund), Case Studies in Applied Psychophysiology: Neurofeedback and Biofeedback Treatments for Advances in Human Performance (with William Edmonds), The Cultural Turn in Sport and Exercise Psychology (with Tatiana Ryba and Robert Schinke), Brain and Body in Sport and Exercise: Biofeedback Applications in Performance Enhancement (with Boris Blumenstein and Michael Bar-Eli), The Practice of Sport Psychology, and Research Methodology in Sport and Exercise Sciences: Quantitative and Qualitative Methods (with Marcy Driscoll).

    Tenenbaum was the president of the International Society of Sport Psychology (ISSP) and a fellow of both the National Academy of Kinesiology (NAK) and the Association for Applied Sport Psychology (AASP). Tenenbaum was the editor of the International Journal of Sport Psychology and the International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. Each year, he organizes several sessions and symposia on measurement issues at conferences in the United States and abroad.

    In 2011, Tenenbaum received the Scientific Award for Scientific Achievement from the American Psychological Association (APA) Division 47 (Sport and Exercise Psychology division). In 2005, he was awarded the Benjamin S. Bloom Professorship from Florida State University and the Presidential Award from the International Society of Sport Psychology. In 2002, he was named a Distinguished Sport Science Scholar Lecturer in sport and exercise psychology for the University of Utah. He was also the recipient of the International Society of Sport Psychology Honor Award in 1997. Tenenbaum holds a doctorate in measurement and statistics from the University of Chicago. He resides in Tallahassee and enjoys traveling to conferences throughout the world, visiting his homeland of Israel, and watching competitive sport

    Robert C. Eklund, PhD, is a professor of sport psychology in the department of educational psychology and learning systems at Florida State University in Tallahassee, where he was recently named the Mode L. Stone Distinguished Professor of Sport Psychology. He earned his doctoral degree in exercise and sport science with a specialization in sport and exercise psychology from the University of North Carolina at Greensboro. He is a fellow of both the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and the National Academy of Kinesiology (NAK).

    Eklund has published over 60 articles in referred journals; coedited (with Gershon Tenenbaum) the prestigious Handbook of Sport Psychology, Third Edition; coauthored two measurement manuals; and authored or coauthored 12 book chapters in the area of sport and exercise psychology. Eklund has presented his research and participated as a keynote lecturer and invited colloquia participant at numerous conferences worldwide.

    Eklund is the current editor in chief of the Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology and has served in that capacity since January 2003. He has also served as associate editor for the Journal of Applied Sport Psychology and psychology section editor for Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. In addition to providing editorial review services for a range of scholarly journals, Eklund currently serves as an editorial board member for The Sport Psychologist; Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology; Pamukkale Journal of Sport Sciences; and Hacettepe Journal of Sport Sciences. In the past, he has served on the editorial boards for the Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology and the Journal of Applied Sport Psychology.

    Eklund resides in Tallahassee with his wife, Colleen, and two sons, Garth and Kieran. He enjoys their sport involvement immensely as well as their interest in spending sunny afternoons fishing at the beach.

    Akihito Kamata, PhD, is a professor of psychometrics and educational measurement in the department of educational methodology, policy, and leadership at the University of Oregon. Before joining the University of Oregon in 2009, he was on faculty at Florida State University for 11 years, where he also served as the chair of the department of educational psychology and learning systems.

    Kamata's primary research interest is implementation of item-level test data analysis methodology through item response theory modeling, multilevel modeling, and structural equation modeling. Kamata has done pioneering work on multilevel item response theory modeling, which is represented by his 2001 publication in the Journal of Educational Measurement, a special issue on multilevel measurement modeling in the Journal of Applied Measurement in 2005, and several book chapters on the topic, including a chapter in the Handbook of Advanced Multilevel Analysis (2011). He has other publications on psychometrics, measurement theory, and applied measurement, including articles in the Journal of Educational Measurement, Applied Psychological Measurement, Structural Equation Modeling, and Psychometrika.

    Reviews

    "This is a welcome contribution to the field of sport and exercise psychology. The measurement and evaluation tools introduced and expanded upon are based on past and current research practices and have been validated in the context of the field's most respected scientists."

    -Doody's Book Review (5 star review)

    “…the text distinguishes itself from others within the domain and provides a valuable and needed contribution.”

    -The Sport Psychologist (December 2012)