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Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination in Exercise and Sport

Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination in Exercise and Sport

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    The world of exercise and sport is fascinated by motivation and the factors that drive it. It's no wonder researchers—both in and out of the sport domain—will enthusiastically welcome Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination in Exercise and Sport.

    Motivation is central to many social psychological theories that aim to explain behavior, including self-determination theory, one of the most influential theories of human motivation developed in the last three decades. Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination in Exercise and Sport examines the contribution of this theory to the understanding of motivation and behavior in the domains of exercise and sport. This is the first book to synthesize key research of self-determination theory as it relates to sport and exercise into one convenient volume. Written by a broad range of leading researchers, this reference will be a trend setter in the understanding of internal motivation and how to maximize performance and adherence. Furthermore, this volume will fill in research gaps, improve existing research, and set new directions for research in this vibrant area.

    Self-determination theory is based on the premise that individuals pursue self-determined goals to satisfy their basic psychological needs to independently solve problems, interact socially, and master tasks. The book begins with an introductory chapter in which the founding fathers of self-determination theory, Edward L. Deci and Richard Ryan, provide an overview of the theory and its constituent subtheories and chart its history with respect to exercise and sport, highlighting classic studies and seminal works along the way. This introduction masterfully provides sufficient theoretical grounding and serves as an excellent prologue to subsequent chapters.

    The remainder of the book is organized in two parts that cover research in the domains of exercise and sport. Part I examines the contribution of self-determination theory to the explanation of participation in and adherence to health-related exercise, and it examines the motivational experiences and contingencies that bring about exercise behavior and health-related outcomes. The recommendation sections that follow each chapter provide specialists interested in promoting exercise—including personal trainers, clinicians, health psychologists, and physical educators—with key strategies to motivate people to regularly participate in exercise for health.

    Part II discusses the role that self-determination theory plays in explaining motivational processes involved in competitive sport contexts and summarizes the state of the literature concerning self-determination theory in diverse areas of sport, including athletes' motivation and sport performance, goal content and orientations, dropout, psychological well-being, and coaching behaviors. The recommendations outlined at the close of each chapter provide coaches, sport psychologists, sport promoters and managers, and physical educators with realistic, practical solutions to maximize sport performance, persistence in training, and, above all, enjoyment and well-being among athletes.

    Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination in Exercise and Sport also integrates self-determination theory concepts with other theoretical frameworks to highlight the versatility of the theory and encourage future research. Each chapter in the text closes with clearly explained, in-depth suggestions for future research and for transferring findings into practice.

    Whether you're a researcher in sport and exercise or in any other area where performance and adherence issues are key, Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination in Exercise and Sport will leave you inspired by the editors' and contributors' research and philosophy, brought together here to advance the knowledge of motivation in exercise and sport.


    Reference for researchers and instructors in motivation in sport and exercise and motivation researchers in non-sport-specific performance domains. Also a text for graduate-level courses or seminars in motivation in sport and exercise or sport and exercise psychology.

    Table of Contents

    Introduction. Active Human Nature: Self-Determination Theory and the Promotion and Maintenance of Sport, Exercise, and Health
    Richard M. Ryan, PhD; and Edward L. Deci, PhD
    Intrinsic Motivation and Our Active Nature
    Beyond Intrinsic Motivation: Internalization and Extrinsic Forms of Motivation
    Basic Needs Theory: Self-Determination Theory and the Facilitating Environment
    Motivation, Vitality, and Health: When Self-Regulation Is Not Depleting
    Conclusions, Musings, and Future Directions

    Part I. Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination in Exercise

    Chapter 1. Exercise Participation Motives: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective
    David Markland, PhD; and David K. Ingledew, PhD
    The Theoretical Status of Participation Motives
    Measurement of Participation Motives
    Participation Motives and Engagement in Various Types of Activity
    Participation Motives and Exercise Behavior
    Participation Motives and Well-Being
    Participation Motives and Body Image
    Participation Motives and Autonomy: Beyond the Intrinsic–Extrinsic Dichotomy
    Conclusions and Implications for Exercise Promotion

    Chapter 2. Perceived Autonomy Support and Psychological Need Satisfaction
    Jemma K. Edmunds, PhD; Nikos Ntoumanis, PhD; and Joan L. Duda, PhD
    The Self-Determination Perspective in Exercise
    Autonomy Support, Psychological Needs, and Autonomous Regulation
    Psychological Needs, Autonomous Regulation, and Exercise Behavior
    Predicting Maladaptive Exercise Engagement
    Ethnic and Cultural Group Considerations
    Promoting Autonomy Support in the Exercise Domain
    Summary and Avenues for Future Research

    Chapter 3. The Trans-Contextual Model of Motivation
    Martin S. Hagger, PhD; and Nikos L.D. Chatzisarantis, PhD
    The Trans-Contextual Model: Component Theories
    The Trans-Contextual Model: Three Premises for Theoretical Integration
    Perceived Autonomy Support
    Testing the Trans-Contextual Model
    Conclusions, Recommendations for Future Research, and Practical Considerations

    Chapter 4. Self-Determination and Motivation in Physical Education
    Martyn Standage, PhD; Fiona Gillison, MSc; and Darren C. Treasure, PhD
    Autonomy Support in Physical Education
    Other Influential Social Context Factors
    Basic Psychological Needs
    Motivational Regulations and Related Consequences
    Tests of the Motivational Sequence
    Practical Implications in Physical Education
    Avenues for Future Self-Determination Theory Work in Physical Education

    Chapter 5. Self-Determination Theory and Motivational Interviewing in Exercise
    David Markland, PhD; and Maarten Vansteenkiste, PhD
    The Principles of Motivational Interviewing
    Intrinsic Motivation in Motivational Interviewing: A Conceptual Refinement
    Conclusions and Applied Implications

    Chapter 6. Self-Determination Theory, Exercise, and Well-Being
    Philip M. Wilson, PhD; and Wendy M. Rodgers, PhD
    The Self and Well-Being
    A Self-Determination Perspective on the Self and Well-Being
    Is the Evidence Consistent With Theory?
    Summary and Recommendations

    Chapter 7. The Flow State and Physical Activity Behavior Change as Motivational Outcomes: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective
    Michelle Fortier, PhD; and John Kowal, PhD
    Self-Determination Theory and Flow
    Self-Determination Theory and Physical Activity Behavior Change

    Chapter 8. Perceived Feedback and Motivation in Physical Education and Physical Activity
    Vello Hein, PhD; and Andre Koka, PhD
    Perceived Feedback as a Source of Competence
    Measurement of Types of Perceived Feedback
    Relationship Between Perceived Feedback and Motivation in Physical Education
    Practical Recommendations and Future Directions for Research

    Part II. Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination in Sport

    Chapter 9. Measurement Issues in Self-Determination Theory and Sport
    Luc G. Pelletier, PhD; and Philippe Sarrazin, PhD
    Versions of the Sport Motivation Scale
    Construct Measurement Issues
    Future Research and Applications

    Chapter 10. Motivation in Elite-Level Sport: A Self-Determination Perspective
    Darren C. Treasure, PhD; Pierre-Nicolas Lemyre, PhD; Kendy K. Kuczka, PhD; and Martyn Standage, PhD
    Motivation Types
    Self-Determination and Training
    Self-Determination and Performance
    Basic Needs
    Practical Applications

    Chapter 11. Intrinsic Versus Extrinsic Goal Promotion in Exercise and Sport: Understanding the Differential Impacts on Performance and Persistence
    Maarten Vansteenkiste, PhD; Bart Soenens, MSc; and Willy Lens, PhD
    Individual Intrinsic Versus Extrinsic Goal Pursuit
    Intrinsic Versus Extrinsic Goal Promotion
    Intrinsic Versus Extrinsic Goal Promotion in Exercising
    Obesity, Healthy Lifestyle Change, and Weight Loss
    Macro-Mediational and Micro-Mediational Mechanisms
    Future Research
    Practical Implications and Conclusion

    Chapter 12. Competence Motivation in Sport and Exercise: The Hierarchical Model of Achievement Motivation and Self-Determination Theory
    David E. Conroy, PhD; Andrew J. Elliot, PhD; and J. Douglas Coatsworth, PhD
    Three Eras of Achievement Motivation
    Key Concepts in Self-Determination Theory
    Linking the Hierarchical Model of Achievement Motivation and Self-Determination Theory
    Future Research Directions
    Implications for Practice

    Chapter 13. Understanding Young People's Motivation Toward Exercise: An Integration of Sport Ability Beliefs, Achievement Goal Theory, and Self-Determination Theory
    Chee Keng John Wang, PhD; and Stuart J.H. Biddle, PhD
    The Context of Physical Activity
    Achievement Goal Theory
    Self Theories of Ability
    Self-Determination Theory
    An Intraindividual Approach to Motivation
    Research Findings
    Practical Implications of Research Findings
    Future Directions

    Chapter 14. Coaching Effectiveness: Exploring the Relationship Between Coaching Behavior and Self-Determined Motivation
    Anthony J. Amorose, PhD
    The Nature and Determinants of Self-Determined Motivation
    Research on Coaching Behavior and Motivation
    Future Research Directions
    Practical Implications

    Chapter 15. A Self-Determination Theory Approach to Dropout in Athletes
    Philippe G. Sarrazin, PhD; Julie C.S. Boichᅵ, PhD; and Luc G. Pelletier, PhD
    A Four-Stage Causal Sequence
    Review of the Studies
    Research Perspectives and Future Directions
    Conclusion and Practical Implications

    Chapter 16. Self-Determination Theory and Well-Being in Athletes: It's the Situation That Counts
    Marylᅵne Gagnᅵ, PhD; and Cᅵline Blanchard, PhD
    Well-Being According to Self-Determination Theory
    Well-Being in Sport
    Self-Determination and Well-Being in Sport
    Diary Studies
    Future Directions
    Implications for Coaching

    Chapter 17. A Hierarchical Model of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation for Sport and Physical Activity
    Robert J. Vallerand, PhD
    The Hierarchical Model of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation
    Integrative Studies
    Future Directions
    Practical Implications and Conclusion

    Conclusion. Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination in Exercise and Sport: Reflecting on the Past and Sketching the Future
    Nikos L.D. Chatzisarantis, PhD; and Martin S. Hagger, PhD
    Methodological Issues
    Self-Determination Theory and the Antecedents of Motivation
    Self-Determination Theory and Psychological Outcomes
    Self-Determination Theory and Exercise and Sport Behavior
    Theoretical Integration and Advancement

    About the Author

    Martin S. Hagger, PhD, is a chartered psychologist and reader in social and health psychology in the School of Psychology at the University of Nottingham, United Kingdom. He has authored more than 50 research articles, book chapters, and books on motivation, including Social Psychology of Exercise and Sport with Nikos Chatzisarantis. He was commissioned to edit Advances in Self-Determination Theory Research in Exercise and Sport, a special issue of the peer-reviewed scholarly journal Psychology of Exercise and Sport. He is coeditor of Psychology and Health, associate editor of Psychology of Sport and Exercise, and on the international advisory board of British Journal of Health Psychology.

    Nikos L.D. Chatzisarantis, PhD, is a principal lecturer in the School of Psychology at University of Plymouth, United Kingdom. Since 1995 he has been researching human motivation and decision-making processes from a self-determination theory perspective. He has been published in peer-reviewed journals of both mainstream psychology and exercise psychology. He earned a PhD in education and a master's degree in sport and exercise psychology from the University of Exeter. He is a member of the advisory boards of International Journal of Sport Psychology, Psychology and Health, and Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport.


    “This book covers all one would need to know about the topic of intrinsic motivation, including a beautiful schematic representation of self-determination theory illustrating the components that underlie the theory.”

    The Sport Psychologist