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Hard Work

Hard Work

Author:
$109.95 CAD

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    Book

    Hard Work: Defining Physical Work Performance Requirements focuses on physically demanding occupations that require strength and stamina, such as law enforcement, structural and wildland firefighting, mining, forestry, and the military. It is the first book to examine the relationship of recruitment practices, physical training, and physical evaluation to the intricate environment of corporations, labor organizations, the legal system, and employment rights.

    Hard Work assists readers in making intelligent and informed decisions resulting in a safer, healthier, and more productive work force. Authors Brian Sharkey and Paul Davis have spent more than 70 years combined researching worker performance in physically demanding professions. Hard Work brings their perspective as exercise scientists to an examination of these factors:
    • Work requirements and capacity for physically demanding jobs
    • Physical characteristics of the “athlete-worker,” including aerobic and muscular fitness
    • Test development, validation, and utilization in employee selection
    • Employee health and job-related fitness
    • Environmental factors affecting employee performance, such as heat, cold, and altitude
    • Respiratory protection and lifting guidelines
    • Legal aspects of employment, consequences of legal decisions, and a proposed alternative to litigation
    By using case studies and real-life examples of tests and programs, the authors teach readers how to evaluate recruits and maintain employee health and safety. The book also includes nine appendixes offering valuable perspectives on testing, job-related fitness, policies, procedures, and performance assessment.

    Hard Work: Defining Physical Work Performance Requirements is organized into five parts. Part I begins with definitions of the physically demanding occupation and characteristics of workers available for employment. The legal aspects of employment are also considered, including reference to age, gender, race, and disability.

    Part II examines the value of initial and periodic evaluations, the test development process, and issues related to testing. Additionally, part II contains an examination of the effects of court decisions and labor unions on the evaluation processes of both new and incumbent employees.

    Part III discusses implementation of recruit testing designed to determine those individuals who can and cannot perform the job. The inherent challenges in shifting from recruit testing to periodic tests for incumbents are described, and ways to evaluate the costs and benefits of testing and training programs are examined.

    In part IV, the values and limits of medical examinations and employee wellness programs are considered. Part IV also discusses work physiology and its relationship to performance and presents the job-related physical fitness program as the essential element required for preserving career-long performance and health.

    Part V discusses employee performance in extreme environments, respiratory protection devices and their impact on the worker, and guidelines designed to reduce the risk of back injuries. It concludes with an examination of legal issues and a proposed alternative to litigation using a collective approach that avoids confrontation and biased testimony and saves taxpayer money.

    Hard Work: Defining Physical Work Performance Requirements suggests how workers could benefit by working up to job requirements while maintaining their health, safety, and job performance. This unique text seeks to bring about a paradigm shift wherein workers are viewed as occupational athletes who, aided by effective recruitment, testing, and training, receive the necessary support to help them excel in their physically demanding workplace.

    Audience

    A reference for occupational physiologists, graduate students, physicians in occupational medicine, managers and employees in physically demanding occupations, city and agency personnel specialists, judges, lawyers, expert witnesses, personnel in state and federal labor and justice departments, and those who write and interpret employment laws.

    Table of Contents

    Part I: The Job and the Worker

    Chapter 1: Physically Demanding Occupations
    Hard Work
    Work Requirements
    Work Capacity
    Summary

    Chapter 2: The Worker
    Physical Characteristics of Workers
    Aerobic Fitness
    Muscular Fitness
    Demographic Trends
    Summary

    Chapter 3: Employment Opportunity
    Employment Laws
    Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures
    Summary

    Part II: Test Development and Validation

    Chapter 4: Job-Related Tests
    Why Test?
    Testing and Legal Issues
    Test Development
    Summary

    Chapter 5: Test Validation
    Content Validity
    Criterion-Related Validity
    Construct Validity
    Validation Options
    Reliability and Cross-Validation
    Bona Fide Occupational Qualification
    Absolute Standards
    Test Standards
    Suboptimal Selection Procedures
    Summary

    Chapter 6: Test Implementation
    Seeking Professional Assistance
    Personnel Issues
    Implementation Strategies
    Summary

    Part III: Employee Selection Practices

    Chapter 7: Testing New Employees
    Medical Standards
    Safety Considerations
    Instructions
    Recruitment
    Pretest Training
    Retesting
    Work Hardening
    Summary

    Chapter 8: Testing Incumbent Employees
    Age and Performance
    Physiological Age
    Periodic Testing
    Providing Adequate Notice
    Medical and Safety
    Fitness Training
    Test Results
    Summary

    Chapter 9: Program Evaluation
    Evaluation
    Surveillance System
    Analysis: Quantitative and Qualitative Information
    Cost-Benefit Analysis
    Reporting Results
    Summary

    Part IV: Employee Health, Physiology, and Performance

    Chapter 10: Employee Health
    Developing Medical Standards
    Employee Health Programs
    Costs and Benefits of Employee Health Programs
    Summary

    Chapter 11: Physiology of Work
    Muscle Fibers
    Muscle Contractions
    Energy Sources
    Oxygen and Energy
    Supply and Support Systems
    The Training Effect
    Summary

    Chapter 12: Job-Related Fitness
    The Job-Related Fitness Programs
    Aerobic Fitness
    Muscular Fitness
    Core Training
    Periodizing the Training Plan
    Body Composition
    Program Issues
    Risks and Benefits
    Summary

    Part V: Job-Related Issues

    Chapter 13: Environmental Impacts
    Heat Stress and Heat Disorders
    Preventing Heat Disorders
    Cold Conditions
    Altitude Acclimatization
    Summary

    Chapter 14: Respiratory Protection
    Respiratory Hazards
    Respirator Selection
    Medical Evaluation
    Work Performance
    APRs and Women
    Summary

    Chapter 15: Lifting Guidelines
    Lifting Standards
    NIOSH Lifting Equation
    Selection and Training
    Summary

    Chapter 16: Legal Issues
    Legal Challenges
    Unintended Consequences
    Court Decisions
    Alternative to Litigation
    Summary

    About the Author

    Brian J. Sharkey, PhD, is a physiologist in the Technology and Development Center at the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service in Missoula, Montana, where he researches fitness, health, and work capacity. Previously, Sharkey served as director of the University of Montana's Human Performance Laboratory and remains associated with the university and lab as professor emeritus.

    As a leading fitness researcher, educator, and author, Sharkey has more than 40 years of experience in both exercise and work physiology, including research with wildland firefighters. For contributions to the health, safety, and performance of firefighters, Sharkey received the USDA's Superior Service Award in 1977 and its Distinguished Service Award in 1993.

    Sharkey is a past president of the American College of Sports Medicine and served on the NCAA committee on competitive safeguards and medical aspects of sports, where he chaired the Sports Science and Safety subcommittee, which uses research and data on injury to improve the safety of intercollegiate athletes. He also coordinated the United States Ski Team Nordic Sports Medicine Council.

    In his leisure time, Sharkey enjoys cross-country and alpine skiing, road and mountain biking, running, hiking, and canoeing. He lives near his grandchildren in Missoula, Montana.

    Paul O. Davis, III, PhD, is the president of the First Responder Institute in Burtonsville, Maryland, where he has conducted job and medical standards development for hundreds of public safety and military organizations. He is a former firefighter/paramedic and as a member of the Fire Board of Montgomery County, responsible for the development of definitive medical care outside of the hospital.

    As an expert witness, Davis has made more than 60 appearances in federal and state court and was recruited by the FBI to participate in legal defense of physical standards. He was also selected by the United States Marine Corps to validate the physical fitness test (PFT) and to conduct certification of the physical training unit staff at the FBI Academy at Quantico, Virginia. Most recently he was engaged by the Department of Homeland Defense to develop hiring and retention standards for the reorganized Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE-D). He is the creator of several TV sports productions including the Firefighter Combat Challenge providing color commentary on ESPN, A&E, and the Versus network.

    Davis is a fellow of the American College of Sports Medicine. He received his PhD in exercise science in 1976 from the University of Maryland.

    Reviews

    “In Hard Work: Defining Physical Work Performance Requirements, Drs. Brian J. Sharkey and Paul O. Davis have now provided an excellent scientific examination of the role of physically intense work on the worker who performs arduous and often dangerous occupations. How to test prospective employees and incumbents as well as legal issues are dealt with in a very professional and valid manner. This text is useful for supervisors and workers who wish to understand hard work in the physically demanding performance professions.”

    Dr. Al Morris, FACSM, Director of Health Improvement and Physical Fitness Programs for the United States Border Patrol