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Evidence-Based Practice in Exercise Science eBook

Evidence-Based Practice in Exercise Science eBook

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    Exercise science practitioners have access to mountains of research findings, expert opinions, novel techniques, and program plans via blogs, fitness magazines, conference presentations, and peer-reviewed journals. To facilitate effective practice, practitioners must sift through this information and retain only the best evidence to form a sound base of knowledge. Evidence-Based Practice in Exercise Science: The Six-Step Approach equips readers with the basic skills and competencies for discerning the value of scientific research. Using a methodical approach, students and professionals will learn to identify appropriate evidence to support novel interventions and avoid counterproductive or dangerous information to eliminate ineffective exercise options.

    The authors, well-known advocates in the study and application of evidence-based practice in the field of exercise science, take the five-step method of evidence-based practice that has been established in medicine, adapt it specifically for exercise science, and expand it to embrace individuality in exercise training. The content is accessible for students in a variety of courses in exercise science curricula; those seeking certification through professional organizations; and practitioners in the fields of exercise, nutrition, sports medicine, and sport science.

    This text is an instruction manual in understanding and applying evidence-based practice. The process is divided into six steps that begin with asking a question and then finding, evaluating, implementing, confirming, and re-evaluating the evidence. Readers of Evidence-Based Practice in Exercise Science will explore these aspects:
    • The philosophy of science and design of scientific studies
    • The use of search tools like PubMed and Google Scholar and how to rank or define the strength of the evidence
    • Practical suggestions for implementing evidence-based practice in the field to better advise and serve athletes, clients, and patients
    • Case studies that demonstrate realistic scenarios of how the evidence-based process may be used in a variety of sport and exercise settings
    Each chapter opens with chapter objectives that provide a road map for learning, and a chapter conclusion summarizes main points and ensures understanding. The case studies cover topics including exercise prescription; exercise for special populations; nutrition and supplementation; and exercise devices, equipment, and apparel. Each case presents a realistic scenario that an exercise practitioner may experience, presents background information, formulates a question for investigation, describes a search of the literature, discusses the findings, and provides a recommendation for practice based on the best current evidence.

    Evidence-Based Practice in Exercise Science is grouped into four sections that assist readers in gaining a better understanding of the evidence-based practice paradigm, learning the step-by-step method, and acquiring experience in the evidence-based approach by working through practical examples using real-world scenarios. Part I offers foundational knowledge of evidence-based practice in exercise sciences. Part II introduces the six-step method of evidence-based practice with chapters that explore each step of the process in depth. Part III presents 16 case studies grouped into chapters by general topics. Part IV concludes the text with chapters on disseminating and sharing knowledge and the future of evidence-based practice in exercise science.

    By understanding the concepts and process of evidence-based practice, current and future sport, exercise, and health professionals will prescribe individualized programs and treatments that improve athletic performance and lead individuals toward better health. Embracing evidence-based practice will ultimately advance the field and produce optimal outcomes for clients, patients, and athletes.


    Textbook for research methods or exercise programming courses that emphasize the use of evidence-based practice; supplemental text for undergraduate students in exercise physiology, biomechanics, motor behavior, nutrition, strength and conditioning, and athletic training courses. Reference for professionals in exercise, sport, health sciences, and nutrition fields.

    Table of Contents

    Part I: Overview and Historical Background of Evidence-Based Practice
    Chapter 1. The Need for Evidence-Based Practice in Exercise Science
    Evidence-Based Practice in Action
    Defining Evidence-Based Practice
    Applying Evidence-Based Practice in Exercise Science
    Team Approach to Evidence-Based Practice
    Becoming an Evidence-Based Practitioner
    Chapter 2. The Process of Evidence-Based Practice
    The Importance of Evidence in Exercise Science
    Applying the Five Steps of Evidence-Based Practice 
    The Case for Evidence-Based Practice
    Criticisms of Evidence-Based Practice
    Chapter 3. Philosophy, Science, and Evidence-Based Practice
    Epistemology of Modern Science
    The Paradigm of Evidence-Based Practice
    Chapter 4. Sources of Evidence
    Sources of Knowledge
    Types of Evidence
    Chapter 5. Reading and Interpreting Research Evidence
    Consumers of Research
    What is Research?
    Components of a Research Paper
    Steps to Critically Reading Research
    Part II: The Six Steps of Evidence-Based Practice
    Chapter 6. Developing a Question
    Question Development Areas
    Types of Questions
    Components of a Foreground Question
    Chapter 7. Searching for Evidence
    Searching for Preliminary Information
    Finding Peer-Reviewed Sources
    Searching a Research Database
    Conducting a Secondary Search From Reference Lists
    Chapter 8. Evaluating the Evidence
    Why is it Important to Rank the Evidence?
    Critically Appraising the Literature
    Levels of Evidence
    Chapter 9. Incorporating Evidence into Practice
    Translating Research Into Practice
    Deciding When to Act on Evidence
    The Influence of Evidence
    Implementing Research-Based Evidence
    Chapter 10. Confirming the Evidence in the Individual
    Generalizability of Research
    n-of-1 as a Model for Confirming the Evidence
    Confirming the Evidence in the Individual in Exercise Science
    Basic Principles in Testing and Measurement
    Deciding to Continue or Discontinue an Intervention
    Collaboration in Evidence-Based Practice
    Chapter 11. Reevaluating the Evidence
    Prompts to Reevaluate
    Techniques to Stay Current
    Part III: Case Studies in Evidence-Based Practice
    Chapter 12. Exercise Prescription
    Case Study 1: Strength Training and Cycling
    Case Study 2: Static Stretching and Soccer
    Case Study 3: ACL Injury Prevention in Female Athletes
    Case Study 4: Single Versus Multiple Sets for Strength Improvement
    Case Study 5: Models of Periodization
    Chapter 13. Exercise for Special Populations
    Case Study 1: Resistance Exercise and Functional Outcomes in Those Who Are Elderly
    Case Study 2: Exercise and Cancer Cachexia
    Case Study 3: Exercise and Traumatic Brain Injury
    Chapter 14. Nutrition and Supplementation
    Case Study 1: Creatine Monohydrate and Cycling
    Case Study 2: Caffeine, Coffee, and Performance Enhancement
    Case Study 3: Protein Intake for Endurance Athletes
    Case Study 4: HMB and Strength–Power Athletes
    Chapter 15. Exercise Devices, Equipment, and Apparel
    Case Study 1: Chains
    Case Study 2: Vibration and Muscle Strength and Power
    Case Study 3: Instability Training and Muscle Strength
    Case Study 4: Minimalist or Barefoot Running and Running Economy
    Part IV: Integrating Evidence-Based Practice into Exercise Science
    Chapter 16. Disseminating and Sharing Knowledge
    Local Discussion and Networking
    Formal and Informal Publications
    Chapter 17. The Future of Evidence-based Practice in Exercise Science
    Ability, Judgment, and Evidence
    Review of the Rationale for Evidence-Based Practice
    The Future of Exercise and Science
    Spreading the Evidence-Based Practice Philosophy
    Working With Scientists
    Becoming an Evidence-Based Practitioner


    William E. Amonette, PhD, is an assistant professor and director of the exercise and health sciences program in the Department of Clinical Health and Applied Sciences at the University of Houston – Clear Lake. Prior to becoming an academician, Amonette served as an assistant strength and conditioning coach for the Chinese national basketball team at the Beijing Olympic Training Center. He was also previously the assistant strength and conditioning coach and rehabilitation coordinator for the NBA’s Houston Rockets, an astronaut strength, conditioning, and rehabilitation specialist, an exercise physiologist, and an integrated testing specialist for the Countermeasures Evaluation and Validation Project for Wyle Laboratories at NASA–Johnson Space Center.

    Amonette earned his PhD at the University of Texas Medical Branch in rehabilitation sciences, with a research emphasis in clinical exercise physiology. He is a certified strength and conditioning specialist (CSCS) though the National Strength and Conditioning Association, an Associate Editor for the Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, and ad hoc peer-reviewer for many scientific journals related to exercise and sport science.

    Amonette’s research interests include physiological and mechanical predictors of sports performance and injury. He also has clinical research interest in neuroendocrine and metabolic responses to exercise in patients with traumatic brain injuries and the effect of novel exercise interventions on rehabilitation outcomes in people with disabilities. He has published numerous scientific and academic peer-reviewed journal articles, reports, and book chapters and has presented his work nationally and internationally.

    Kirk L. English, PhD, is a senior scientist with JES Tech LLC, a NASA contractor, and works in the Exercise Physiology and Countermeasures Laboratory at NASA – Johnson Space Center. He is also a research scientist in the Department of Nutrition and Metabolism at the University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB) and an adjunct professor at the University of Houston – Clear Lake, where he teaches a graduate course.

    English, who is a member of the National Strength and Conditioning Association, American College of Sports Medicine, and American Physiological Society, received his PhD in rehabilitation sciences from UTMB. During his graduate studies, he was awarded a competitive three-year NASA/Texas Space Grant Consortium Graduate Fellowship. English has published numerous peer-reviewed articles, technical reports, conference abstracts, and book chapters on exercise, nutrition, aging, spaceflight, and evidence-based practice in the field of exercise science.

    In his work with NASA, English’s research focuses on the prevention of spaceflight-induced decreases in skeletal muscle mass, strength, and performance. His work includes the development and validation of novel exercise protocols and hardware that are used both on the ground and during spaceflight. He also conducts all pre- and post-flight strength testing of American, European, Canadian, and Japanese International Space Station crewmembers and serves as the liaison and subject matter expert on this topic to NASA’s international partners.

    William J. Kraemer, PhD, is a full professor in the Department of Human Sciences at The Ohio State University. He has also held full professorships at the University of Connecticut, Ball State University, and The Pennsylvania State University, including each medical school. Dr. Kraemer is a fellow of the American College of Sports Medicine, the National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA), and the American College of Nutrition. Among many of his professional achievements, he is a recipient of the NSCA’s Lifetime Achievement Award. He is editor in chief of the NSCA’s Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, an editor of the European Journal of Applied Physiology, and an associate editor of the Journal of the American College of Nutrition. He holds many other editorial board positions in the field. Kraemer has published more than 450 peer-reviewed papers in scientific literature and has published 12 books. He received the 2014 Expertscape Award, which named him the nation’s top expert in resistance training research over the past ten years. With almost 40,000 citations on Harzing’s Publish or Perish lists, his scholarly impact is impressive.