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Advanced Neuromuscular Exercise Physiology PDF

Advanced Neuromuscular Exercise Physiology PDF

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    Advanced Neuromuscular Exercise Physiology uses a mix of biochemistry, molecular biology, neurophysiology, and muscle physiology to provide a synthesis of current knowledge and research directions in the field. The first text devoted solely to the topic, Advanced Neuromuscular Exercise Physiology assists readers in identifying current directions in research and new avenues for exploration.

    Recognizing the rapid changes occurring in the field of neuromuscular exercise physiology, the text provides readers with a foundation of knowledge while detailing the most recent findings. Though the text is written at an advanced level, the author succeeds at making the content accessible. Analyses of research findings and research applications are highlighted in special sidebars. Detailed illustrations and graphs assist readers in understanding research findings. Chapter summaries also help readers determine the key issues presented for each topic.

    The author draws attention to a variety of important topics in the field, beginning with a discussion of motor unit types, muscle blood flow, and metabolic pathways in control of metabolism, including a special discussion of the effects of type 2 diabetes. Next, the topic of fatigue is discussed. The author explains possible peripheral and central contributors to fatigue. Chapters 6 and 7 focus on whole-body endurance training, including the effects of aerobic endurance training on the protein profiles of muscle fibers and on the central nervous system. Of particular interest is the applicability of research information to the exercise rehabilitation of individuals with compromised nervous system function, such as spinal cord injury, other trauma, and neuromuscular diseases. The final chapters are devoted to resistance training, including the phenotypic responses of muscles to isometric, slow isotonic, lengthening, and plyometric training. An overview of the effects of resistance training on the nervous system is offered along with clinical applications.

    Within the dynamic field of neuromuscular exercise physiology, ideas of how nerves and muscles collaborate during acute and chronic exercise are continually evolving. Advanced Neuromuscular Exercise Physiology offers an authoritative perspective of current research in the field as it seeks to encourage discussion, further study, and new research directions.

    Human Kinetics’ Advanced Exercise Physiology Series offers books for advanced undergraduate and graduate students as well as professionals in exercise science and kinesiology. These books highlight the complex interaction of the various systems both at rest and during exercise. Each text in this series offers a concise explanation of the system and details how each is affected by acute exercise and chronic exercise training. Advanced Neuromuscular Exercise Physiology is the third volume in the series.

    Table of Contents

    Chapter 1. Muscle Fibers, Motor Units, and Motoneurons

    Muscle Heterogeneity

    Orderly Motor Unit Recruitment

    Smaller Motoneurons Are More Excitable

    Membrane Resistivity and Motoneuron Size

    Other Factors Determining Action Potential Generation

    Minimal Firing Rates and Afterhyperpolarization Durations

    Motoneuron Current–Frequency Relationship and Excitability

    Late Adaptation

    Motoneuron PICs

    Summary

    Chapter 2. Motor Unit Recruitment During Different Types of Movements

    Measuring Human Motor Unit Recruitment

    Influence of Task

    Slow-Ramp Isometric Contractions

    Maintained Isometric Contractions

    Isometric Contractions in Various Directions

    Isometric Contractions Versus Movements

    Lengthening Contractions

    Cocontraction of Agonists and Antagonists

    Unilateral Versus Bilateral Contractions

    Rhythmic Complex Contractions

    MVCs

    Summary

    Chapter 3. Muscle Blood Flow and Metabolism

    Muscle Blood Flow

    Muscle Metabolism

    Summary

    Chapter 4. Peripheral Factors in Neuromuscular Fatigue

    Intramuscular Factors and Muscle Force

    Involvement of Structures Other Than Muscle

    Research From Animal Experiments

    Summary

    Chapter 5. Central Factors in Neuromuscular Fatigue

    Motoneuron Activity During Sustained Contractions

    Isometric Versus Anisometric Tasks

    Rotation of Motor Units?

    Summary

    Chapter 6. Muscular Mechanisms in Aerobic Endurance Training

    Chronic Muscle Stimulation

    Coordination of Muscle Protein Systems

    Pretranslational Control

    Translational Control

    Posttranslational Modifications

    Simultaneous Expression of Isoforms

    Adaptations Can Occur Ex Vivo

    Adaptations Appear in a Specific Sequence

    Thresholds of Activity for Adaptation

    Chronic Stimulation and Atrophy

    Metabolic Signals and the Adaptive Response

    Degenerative and Regenerative Processes

    Summary

    Chapter 7. Neural Mechanisms in Aerobic Endurance Training

    Adaptation of the Neuromuscular Junction

    Adaptations to Endurance Training

    Responses of Motoneurons

    Adaptations of Spinal Cord Circuits

    Summary

    Chapter 8. Muscle Molecular Mechanisms in Strength Training

    Acute Responses in Protein Synthesis and Degradation

    Connective Tissue Responses

    Role of Muscle Damage

    Role of Dietary Supplements

    Summary

    Chapter 9. Muscle Property Changes in Strength Training

    Increased Muscle Fiber Cross-Sectional Area

    Fiber Type Composition

    Muscle Fiber Number

    Muscle Composition

    Muscle Architecture

    Muscle Fiber Ultrastructure

    Evoked Isometric Contractile Properties

    Changes in Muscle Force, Velocity, and Power

    Fatigue Resistance

    Role of Eccentric Contractions

    Summary

    Chapter 10. Neural Mechanisms in Strength Training

    Gains in Strength Versus Muscle Girth

    Strength Gains Show Task Specificity

    Surface EMG Response During MVC

    Imaginary Strength Training

    Reflex Adaptations

    Cross Education

    Decreased Activation of Antagonists

    Changes in Motor Unit Recruitment

    Changes in Motor Cortex

    Summary

    About the Author

    Phillip F. Gardiner, PhD, is a professor and director of the Health, Leisure & Human Performance Research Institute at the University of Manitoba in Winnipeg. He holds professorial positions in kinesiology and physiology and is a member of the Spinal Cord Research Center. Author of the Human Kinetics books Neuromuscular Aspects of Physical Activity (2001) and Skeletal Muscle Form and Function (coauthor, 2006), Dr. Gardiner has also published over 100 research articles on neuromuscular system adaptability.

    In 2007, Dr. Gardiner received the highest award bestowed by the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology, the CSEP Honour Award. He was also awarded a Tier I Canada Research Chair at the University of Manitoba in 2002, which was subsequently renewed for an additional 7 years following peer review in 2009.

    Dr. Gardiner served as the president of the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology and as coeditor in chief of the Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology. He is currently chair of the Advisory Board for the Institute of Musculoskeletal Health and Arthritis, part of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research.

    Dr. Gardiner resides in Winnipeg, Manitoba, with his wife, Kalan, where he enjoys fly-fishing, brewing his own beer, playing piano, and wrestling with his two Labrador retrievers.

    Reviews

    “The book manages to be comprehensive and highly detailed without being burdensome with too much unnecessary information. The cited research and its currency make the book highly credible and useful in today's classroom.”

    —Doody’s Book Review (5-star review)