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Excerpt — ACSM's Exercise Management for Persons With Chronic Diseases and Disabilities-4th Edition

Risk factors for coronary artery disease

Hypertension and dyslipidemia are separate independent risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD), and in the United States, 33% of Americans have dyslipidemia and 29% have hypertension. These diseases frequently occur together, however, and the combination speeds the process of atherosclerosis.

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A Closer Look at Basic CDD4 Recommendations for Physical Activity or Exercise in Chronic Conditions

After four editions of the CDD series, with many decades of clinical experience on the part of the contributors to CDD4, the main working group of authors concluded that it is confusing and unnecessary to sustain disease-specific recommendations, for these reasons: There are thousands of chronic conditions and causes of disability.

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Case Study: Diabetes and Obesity with Osteoarthrosis

"I intend to live into my 90s but I can’t get there unless I’m dancing." A 52-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes was referred for help on lifestyle. She had a family history of diabetes and tended toward a centripetal/abdominal fat distribution pattern associated with high CV risk.

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Permanent Pacemakers and Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators

A variety of factors contribute to optimal cardiac functioning, including atrioventricular (AV) synchronization and the chronotropic and inotropic responses to neurohormonal stimuli. Alterations in the normal sequence of atrial and ventricular filling and contraction can result in deterioration of hemodynamics and subsequent symptoms at rest, during exercise, or both.

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